Shifting the Dimensionality of Language: Evidence from Bilingual Bajau Sama Kota Belud in Malaysia

Berawati Renddan, Adi Yasran Abdul Aziz, Noor Aina Dani

Abstract


The language shift phenomenon in the Bajau Sama Kota Belud in Sabah is definite. The researchers surveyed the phenomenon in Kampung Taun Gusi 1, Kota Belud, Sabah. Based on the age cross-sectional method, 300 participants of 20-29 years (G20s), 30-39 years (G30s), 40-49 years (G40s), and 50-59 years (G50s) respectively were selected by stratified sampling. The objective of this study is to formulate the dimensionality of language shift. The researchers found that speakers shifted from using the mother tongue to the Malay language after entering school. The Bajau Sama language spoken as the mother tongue has declined from one generation to another. For a better understanding of the Bajau Sama lexical, G20s meet Fishman’s (1991) implication scale negatively. The group achievement of nouns has decreased to 26.9%, verbs (33.9%), and adjectives (32%). Meanwhile, the attitude overtness towards the Bajau Sama language is most evident among G50s with a statistical min of 83.00, declining by 48.20 in G30s and 41.80 in G40s, which eventually and significantly decreased by 23.20 in G20s. In the family domain, G20s prefer using the Malay language over Bajau Sama. In the neighbourhood domain, G20s and G30s use the Malay language frequently. All the groups choose to speak the Malay language in the shop outlet domain. This study’s implications demonstrate G20s and G30s have shifted to use the Malay language in family and neighbourhood domains. This shifting justifies the low vocabulary knowledge in Bajau Sama compared to G40s and G50s. Overall, the language shift from the mother tongue to the Malay language in the Bajau Sama Kota Belud community occurred due to bilingualism, the level of status, and unequal power between the two languages, the impact of political, economic, and social situations on one language group. In conclusion, we suggested that the Bajau Sama standard language curriculum be introduced in primary schools to sustain its vitality as a revitalization program.

Keywords


Language Shift, Dimensionality, Domain, Attitude, Intergenerational, Language Transmission, Mother Tongue

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adams, M. M. (2013). Topic continuity in informal conversations. Multilingua, 32(3), 321–342

Alexander, J. S., Hazlina, A. H., & Jürgen, M. B. (2019). A study on the frequency of Dusun language use among secondary school students. Jurnal Linguistik, 23(1), 32-40

Banker, E. F. (1984). The west coast Bajau language. (1984). In J.K. King, & J.W. King (eds.), Languages of Malaysia: a survey report. Pacific Linguistics Series C, 78, 101-112

Bartlett, J. E., Kotrlik, J. W., & Higgins, C. C. (2001). Organizational research: Determining the appropriate sample size in survey research. Information Technology, Learning and Performance Journal, 19(1), 43-50

Batibo, H. M. (1997) The fate of the minority languages of Botswana. In B. Smieja, & M. Tasch, (Eds.), Human contact through language and linguistics (pp. 243–52). Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Coluzzi, P., Riget, N. P., & Xiaomei. W. (2017). Language vitality among the Orang Asli of Malaysia: the case of the Mah Meri on Telo’ Gunjeng (Carey Island, Malaysia). Malaysia Journal of the Sociology of Language, 244, 137-161

Eberhard, D. M., Gary F. S., & Charles D. F. (Eds.). (2020). Ethnologue: Languages of the world. Twenty-third edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Retrieved from https://www.ethnologue.com/size-and-vitality/bdr

El Kirat, E. A. Y. (2007). Language shift: Amazigh. In K. Versteegh, M. Eid, A. Elgibali, M. Woidich, & A. Zaborski, (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Arabic language and linguistics (Vol. 2, pp. 707–716). Leiden, the Netherlands: Brill.

Fishman, J. A. (1991). Reversing language shift: theoretical and empirical foundations of assistance to threatened languages. Clevedon, United Kingdom: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

Granhemat, M., & Abdullah, A. N. (2017). Gender, ethnicity, ethnic identity, and language choices of Malaysian youths: the case of the family domain. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 8(2), 26-36. Doi:10.7575/aiac.alls.v.8n.2p.26

Hoffman, K. E. (2006). Berber language ideologies, maintenance, and contraction: gendered variation in the indigenous margins of Morocco. Language and Communication, 26, 144-167

Hotma, S. (2017). Pengekalan dan peralihan bahasa dalam kalangan Orang Batak Toba di Malaysia, Malaysia. [Language maintenance and language shift among the Toba Batak people in Malaysia, Malaysia] Universiti Malaya, Lembah Pantai, Malaysia.

Iziq, E. I., Abdullah Sani, H. A., & Ismail, I. (2017). Influences of regional Sama-Bajau coastal dwellings: social perspectives through identity molding. Malaysia Journal of Culture and History, 1(2), 115-121. Doi: 10.18178/ijch.2015.1.2.022

Kandelaki, E. (2017). Language behaviour and the contributing factors towards it among the Georgian ethnic minorities in Luton. (Unpublished doctoral’s thesis). University Of Bedfordshire, United Kingdom.

Md. Roslan, S. (2020). Daya hidup bahasa Bisaya sebagai bahasa etnik minoriti di Malaysia. [The vitality of the Bisaya language as the ethnic minority language in Malaysia] (Unpublished doctoral’s thesis). Universiti Malaysia Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.

Mohd. Arifin, M. A. (2020). Mekanisme bahasa pelajar Malaysia Brunei di Malaysia dan hubungannya dengan identiti bahasa.[Language mechanism of Brunei Malay students in Malaysia and its relationship to language identity] (Unpublished doctoral’s thesis). Universiti Malaysia Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.

Mohsen, T. & Reg, D. (2011). Making sense of Cronbach’s Alpha. Malaysia Journal of Medical Education, 2, 53-55

Nawaz, S., Umer, A., Anjum, F., & Ramzan, M. (2012). Language shift: an analysis of factors involved in language shift. Global Journal of Human Social Science, Linguistics & Education, 12(10), 1-10

Noor Aina, D., Kiram, M. N., Mohd. Arif, M. A., Ombi, K., Suhailin, R., Sha’ri, S. N., & Paul, D. Endangered intergenerational language transmission: evidence from the indigenous Dusun society of Malaysia, Malaysia. Pertanika Journal of Social Science & Humanities, 27(1), 1-12

Noraisikin, G, Mohammad, F. J., & Harishon, R. (2019). Peralihan bahasa Cham dalam masyarakat Cham di Malaysia: analisis sosiolinguistik. [Cham language shift in Cham society in Malaysia: sociolinguistic analysis] GEMA Online® Journal of Language Studies, 19(2), 52-69

Reny, W. (2019). Sikap bahasa penutur Shimakutuba dialek Uchinaguchi di Prefektur Okinawa. [The language attitude of the Shimakutuba speakers of the Uchinaguchi dialect in Okinawa Prefecture] Kiryoku, 3(1), 37-44

Saeed, R., Ashkan, L., & Arash, N. (2017). Attitude towards Azeri language in Iran: a large-scale survey research. Journal Of Multilingual And Multicultural Development, 38(10), 1-11

Sather, C. (1997). The Bajau Laut: Adaptation, history, and fate in a maritime fishing society of south-eastern Malaysia. Malaysia: Oxford University Press.

Syafrizal & Raden, G. (2018, July 2). Internal and external factors of Lampungese language maintenance in Cikoneng, Banten. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/User/Desktop/Lampung%20Maintenence.2018.pdf

Yabit, A. (2019). Tinjauan awal: revitalisasi bahasa Bisaya di perbatasan Brunei Darussalam dan Limbang Malaysia, Malaysia. [A pilot study: revitalization of Bisaya language on the border of Brunei Darussalam and Limbang Malaysia, Malaysia] Jurnal Studi Kultural, 4(2), 80-86

Zuraini, S. (2014). Perubahan sifat leksikon dialek Malaysia Malaysia mengikut generasi penutur. [The changing nature of the Malaysia Malay dialect lexicon by generations of speakers] (Unpublished doctoral thesis). Universiti Malaysia Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.alls.v.11n.6p.12

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2010-2021 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

Advances in Language and Literary Studies

You may require to add the 'aiac.org.au' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.