Interrelation of Character-Generated Implicature and Inter-Character Sentimentality: A Comparison of of Stephenie Meyer’s ‘Twilight’ and Veronica Roth’s ‘Divergent’

Hammed Mohammadpanah, Samira Hamzehei

Abstract


Inspired by the cognitive approach to characterisation and in view of relevance theory, this research attempted to outline a relevance-theoretic account of how affective attachment between fictional characters influences writers’ use of implicata through characters as part of inter-character discourse by defining cognitive processes into fictional characters as a pivotal element of implicit characterisation. Our attempt addressed the veracity of such an influence and the question whether awareness of the intensity degree of such sentimentality influences readers’ non-spontaneous interpretation of character-generated implicata and characters’ intention to actually execute relevant implicating. By adherence to defining cognitive processes into character discourse, we conducted an analysis on six samples of implicata exchanges within inter-character verbal discourse between the mutual parties of the primary affective attachment of the narrative, between the protagonist and another round character out of Stephenie Meyer’s ‘Twilight’ and Veronica Roth’s ‘Divergent’. In every instance of character-generated implication, we found decisive facilitatory influence for awareness of three levels of calculable implicated conclusions, inter-character sentiment intensity, and characters’ communicative intents on readers' achieving what Furlong terms ‘maximal relevance’ through non-spontaneous interpretation of literary texts. Additionally, tracking the progression of inter-character sentiment intensity throughout the two narratives yielded strategic drops during the gradual formation of inter-character bonds employed mainly to demonstrate a mutual sense of fastidiousness in characters’ choice of a companion in romance and also strengthening the said bonds.

Keywords


Implicature, Characterisation, Relevance Theory, Non-spontaneous Interpretation, Maximal Relevance

Full Text:

PDF

References


Blakemore, D. (1992). Understanding Utterances. Cowley Rd, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

Chapman, S., & Clark, B. (Eds) (2014). Pragmatic Literary Stylistics. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

Cohan, S. & Shires, L.M. (2001). Telling Stories: A Theoretical Analysis of Narrative Fiction. New Fetter Lane, London: Routledge.

Cruse, D.A. (2000). Meaning in Language: An Introduction to Semantics & Pragmatics. Great Claredon St, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Culpeper, J. (2001). Language and Characterization: People in Plays and Other Texts. New York, NY: Routledge.

Davis, W.A. (1998). Implicature: Intention, Convention, and Principle in the Failure of Gricean Theory. The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Eder, J., Jannidis, F., & Schneider, R., (Eds) (2010). Characters in Fictional Worlds: Understanding Imaginary Beings in Literature, Film, and Other Media. Berlin: de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-023241-7

Fasold, R.W., & Connor-Linton J. (2006). An Introduction to Language & Linguistics. The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Furlong, A. (1996). Relevance Theory and Literary Interpretation (Doctoral Dissertation). London: University College London.

Geis, M.L. (1995). Speech Acts & Conversational Interactions. The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Grice, H.P. & White, A.R. (1961). The Causal Theory of Perception. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 35 (suppl.), 121-52. https://doi.org/10.1093/aristoteliansupp/35.1.121

Grice, H.P. (1991). Studies in the Way of Words. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Levinson, S.C. (1983-2008). Pragmatics. The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Martin, P. (2004). Characterisation in the Novel: An Aesthetic of the Uncanny (Master’s Thesis). School of Communications: Dublin City University.

McKee, R. (1997). Story: Substance, Structure, Style and the Principles of Screenwriting. East 53rd St. New York: HarperCollins.

Meyer, S. (2005). Twilight. Boston, New York: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-16017-2

Mohammadpanah, H., Hamzehei, S., & Massiha, L. (2018). Towards Non-Spontaneity in Interpretation of Implicature Serving Implicit Characterization: The Case of Subsidiary Trait Precipitation in Arthur C. Doyle’s ‘A Study in Scarlet’. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature. E-ISSN: 2200-3452 & P-ISSN: 2200-3592. https://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.7n.7p.209

Rimmon-Kenan, Sh. (2005). Narrative Fiction (2nd edition). London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203426111

Roberts, E.V. (1995). Writing about Literature (8th edition). Englewood Cliffs. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Roth, V. (2011). Divergent. East 53rd Street, New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 978-0-06-208432-3

Schmitt, N. (2010). An Introduction to Applied Linguistics (2nd edition). Euston Rd. London: Hodder Education.

Sperber, D., & Wilson, D. (1995). Relevance: Communication and Cognition (2nd edition). Cowley Rd. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

Sperber, D., & Wilson, D. (2002). Relevance Theory: A Tutorial. Proceedings of the Third Tokyo Conference on Psycholinguistics: 45-70.

Sperber, D., & Wilson, D. (2006). Relevance Theory. In Horn, L. R., & Ward G. (Eds), The Handbook of Pragmatics (pp. 607-632). Garrison Rd, Oxford: Blackwell.

Thomas, J. (2013). Meaning in Interaction: An Introduction to Pragmatics. New York, NY: Routledge.

Verschueren, J. (2003). Understanding Pragmatics. Euston Rd, London: Arnold.

Widdowson, H.G. (2007-2011). Discourse Analysis, Oxford Introductions to Language Study. Great Claredon Street, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Yule, G. (1996-2017). Pragmatics, Oxford Introductions to Language Study. Great Claredon Street, Oxford: Oxford University Press.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.alls.v.11n.4p.37

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2010-2020 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

Advances in Language and Literary Studies

You may require to add the 'aiac.org.au' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.