Forces of Development: Globalisation, Civil Societies, and NGOs in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Narratives

Nfon Rita Gola

Abstract


This paper looks at globalization, civil societies and their extensions, NGOs, as forces of development within the contemporary global era through the prism of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Half of a Yellow Sun, The Thing Around Your Neck and Americanah. In these texts, the above forces have eroded both ideological and geopolitical boundaries for the betterment of humanity. The centrality of the state, with regards to state development, has been questioned by civil society activism. Civil society agencies, especially, NGOs, the paper posits, have become players in governance−an activity generally reserved for the state. The paper views the flux in state and civil society borders as a part of the shifts in the borders of most of the once outstanding binary pairs−the west and the non-west, the whites and the blacks, as well as the rich and the poor. These are positive shifts that are integral to the present mix in which humanity now exists. The works I analyze market this blend in that Adichie’s characters, no matter where they find themselves, move away from fixed ways of doing things and get connected with the supposed others for humanistic purposes. Globalization theory is used to underline the extent to which the ‘self’ and ‘other’ concepts disappear when it comes to development issues in the postcolony. The paper seeks to answer two basic questions, namely; is the proliferation of civil societies, especially NGOs, the result of the globalization phenomenon or the cause of the globalization process? How has globalization, civil societies and NGOs developed Nigeria, in particular, and Africa in general? It premises the civil society as a trajectory of the globalisation process with a positive outcome from the perspective that its various forms have encouraged and facilitated the spread of humanitarian considerations for the purpose of development.

Keywords


NGO, Civil Society, Development, Narratives, Globalisation, Interrelations

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adichie, Ngozi Chimamanda,(2003) Purple Hibiscus, Lagos: Onikan Limited.

..., (2006). Half of a Yellow Sun. Lagos: Onikan.

..., (2009). The Thing Around Your Neck. Lagos: Onikan.

..., (2013). Americanah, London: Fourth Estate.

Albrow, Martin. (1996). The Global Age: State and Society beyond Modernity. Cambridge: Polity.

Baudrillard, Jean. (1997). Simulacra and Simulation. Trans, Sheila Faria Glaser, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Bauman, Zygmunt. (1998). Globalisation: The Human Consequences. Cambridge: Polity.

Carrol, Noel. (1997). Periodizing Postmodernism . In CLIO, 26(2), PP.143+ Queatia.

Christopher, R. James and WITTET G. George. (1951). Modern Western Civilisation,

Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dechaine, D. Robert. (2005). Global Humanitarianism: NGOs and the Crafting of the

Community. Lanham: Lexington Books.

Donahue, D. John and NYE S. Joseph. (1977). Governance in a Globalizing World. Washington DC: Bookings Institute Press.

Entrena, Francisco. (2001). “Socio−economic restructuring of the Local Settings in the Era of Globalisation”. In Protosiology, Vol.15 pp.297−310.

Gupta, Suman. (2009). Globalization and Literature. Cambridge, polity Press.

Jackson, Elizabeth, (2013), “ Transcending the Limitations of Diaspora as a Category of Cultural Identity in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s The Thing Around Your Neck” in Diasporic Choices, Jan 2013, pp47-56.

Linklater, Andrew. (1998). The Transformation of Political Community: Ethical Values of Post−Westphalian Era. Oxford: Polity Press.

Habermas, Jurgen. (1992). The Structure of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Cambridge: MIT Press.

… (1996). “Further Reflections on the Public Sphere”. Calhoun, C.(Ed). In Habermas and the Public Sphere. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp421-461.

Lyotard, Jean Francois. (1999). The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge. Trans. Geoff Bennington and Brian Massumi. Manchester: University of Manchester Press.

Ngongkum Eunice, (2014) “Transnationalism, Home and Identity in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s The Thing Around Your Neck” in Contemporary Journal of African Studies, Vol 2 (1), 2014, pp77-95.

Oaskeshott, Michael. (1989). The Voice of Liberal Learning. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Omotayo, Elizabeth Adesumbo, (2019), “The Dynamic Interplay of the Global and Local Environments:A Study of Chimamanda Adichie’s Americanah” in International Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, Vol 8(1), March 2019, 19-27.

Rajaee, Farhang. (2000). Globalisation on Trial: The Human Condition and Information Civilisation. Carleton: Carleton University Press.

Said, Edward. (1978). Orientalism. New York: Penguin Books.

… (1993). Culture and Imperialism. First Vintage Books Edition.

Shaw, Micheal, (1997). “The State and Globalisation: Towards a Theory of the State Transformation”. In Review of International Political Economy, 4(3), 497-513.

THE World Bank. (2000). Can Africa claim the 21st Century? Washington D.C.: Washington Press.

… (2011). Migration and Remittances Face book. (2 Ed.). Washington DC.Washington Press.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.alls.v.10n.5p.120

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2010-2020 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

Advances in Language and Literary Studies

You may require to add the 'aiac.org.au' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.