Age, Gender, Attitudes and Motivation as Predictors of Willingness to Listen in L2

Ahmet Selçuk Akdemir


The aim of the current research is to investigate the relationship between the attitudes and motivation of EFL learners and their willingness to listen (WTL); possible effects of age and gender on EFL learners’ WTL, attitude and motivation. A quantitative study was designed in which 239 participants, intermediate level EFL learners at a public university, took a set of instruments, namely a reduced version of the AMTB, mini-AMTB, and WTL scale in Likert type. The participants were also asked to specify their gender and age during data collection procedure. Data was analysed using SPSS 24.0. Percentage and frequency analyses, independent samples t-test, Kruskal Wallis H test, Pearson correlation analysis and simple linear regression analysis were employed in data analysis phase. The results of the study showed that gender affects EFL learners’ attitudes and motivation while age has no effect on attitudes and motivation; also it was found that there is a positive and meaningful relationship between mini-AMTB and WTL scores of the participants. According to the findings of the current study the predictive power of mini-AMTB of WTL has been found statistically meaningful. The findings have revealed that there is a positive and meaningful relationship between mini-AMTB and WTL scores of the participants. Gender affects EFL learners’ attitudes and motivation as female participants’ mini-AMTB scores were found higher than those of male participants. Also a meaningful relationship between mini-AMTB and WTL has been found according to regression analysis. The paper concludes with implications for further research to investigate the WTL in various contexts with other personal variables.


WTL, Attitudes, Motivation, Learner Variables, Language Learning

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