Interventionist Dynamic Assessment’s Effects on Speaking Skills Testing: Case of Elt Teacher Candidates

Zeynep Çetin Köroğlu


EFL learners’ oral proficiency plays an important role in the representation of their productive skills. Especially, English language learners’ speaking skills are considered as main reflection of their proficiency in foreign languages. Speaking in L2 is accepted as a vital competence for language teachers as well, who are going to teach the target language in the future. The related literature puts an emphasis on the assessment of speaking skills utilizing various techniques. However, the number of research studies, examining how dynamic assessment (DA), especially the interventionist model of dynamic assessment, can be utilized as a technique in the assessment of L2 speaking performance, is relatively limited. Thus, the main aims of the current research study are both to investigate the efficacy of the interventionist model of DA in the assessment of student teachers’ speaking skills performance and to figure out their attitudes towards dynamic assessment. The participants of the current research were 29 student teachers, enrolled in the English Language Teaching Department of a state university in Turkey. To collect the quantitative data questionnaire survey was adopted and utilized as a checklist due to the number of the participants. On the other hand, to collect the qualitative data, a written structured interview was administered to the participants. The data were analyzed with the SPSS package and through the content analysis method. The findings of the current research revealed that participants were satisfied with the interventionist model and developed positive attitudes towards this assessment type. The participants stated that the interventionist dynamic assessment provided an authentic, creative and relaxing atmosphere, which decreased the level of their speaking anxiety. It can be asserted that DA can be administered to test foreign language speaking performance in language classrooms. Additionally, it was concluded that the interventionist model sustained and boosted the student teachers’ oral skills achievement.


English Language Teachers, Speaking Skills, Interventionist Model, Interventionist Dynamic Assessment, Language Pedagogy, Action Research

Full Text:



Ahmadi Safa, M., Donyaie, S., & Malek Mohammedi, R. (2015). An Investigation into the Effect of Interactionist versus Interventionist Models of Dynamic Assessment on Iranian EFL Learners’ Speaking Skill Proficiency.Teaching English Language,9(2), 147-166.

Anton, M. (2009). Dynamic assessment of advanced second language learners. Foreign Language Annals, 42,576-598.

Brown, H.D. (1994). Teaching by principles: an interactive approach to language pedagogy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents.

Brown, N. A. (2009). Argumentation and debate in foreign language instruction: A case for the traditional classroom facilitating advanced-level language uptake. Modern Language Journal, 93, 534-549.

Çetin Köroğlu, Z. & Çakır, A. (2017). Implementation of flipped instruction in language classrooms: An alternative way to develop speaking skills of pre-service English language teachers. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology, 13(2), 42-55.

Çetin Köroğlu, Z. &Utku, Ö. (2018). Yabancı dilde konuşma becerisinin ölçülmesinde dinamik ölçme, In Dr.Öğr. Üyesi Özgül BALCI, Öğr. Gör. Fatih ÇOLAK (eds.) Her Yönüyle Yabancı Dil Üzerine Araştırmalar II, pp: 77-87, ÇizgiYayınevi.

Ebadi, S. & Asakereh, A. (2017). Developing EFL learners’ speaking skills through dynamic assessment: A case of a beginner and an advanced learner, Educational Assessment & Evaluation,2017(4),1-18.

Ellis, R. (2009a). The differential effects of three types of task planning on the fluency, complexity, and accuracy in L2 oral production. Applied Linguistics, 30, 474-509.

Farokhipours, S. (2016). On The Role of Different Models of Dynamic Assessment on Promoting Speaking. International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies 2(4), 586-600.

Gao, M. (2010). School-based assessment in Hong Kong: Impact on students' attitudes and anxiety. Unpublished Ph.D thesis, The University of Hong Kong.

Hill, K., & Sabet, M. (2009). Dynamic speaking assessments. TESOL Quarterly, 43(3), 537–545.

Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 70(2), 125-132.

Horwitz, E. K, Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1991). Foreign language classroom anxiety. In E. K Horwitz and D. J. Young (Eds.),Language anxiety: from theory and research to classroom implications, (pp 27-36) England Cliffs, Nj: Prentice hall.

Huang, L.-S. (2010). Do different modalities of reflection matter? An exploration of adult second-language learners’ reported strategy use and oral language production. System, 38, 245-261.

Kinginger, C. (2002). Defining the zone of proximal development in US foreign language education. Applied Linguistics, 23, 240-261.

Lantolf, J.P. &Poehner, M.E. (2004). Dynamic assessment of L2 development: Bringing the past into the future. Journal of Applied Linguistics,1, 49-72.

Leung, C. (2005). Classroom teacher assessment of second language development: Construct as practice. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Leung, C, &Mohan, B. (2004). Teacher formative assessment and talk in classroom contexts: Assessment as discourse and assessment of discourse. Language Testing, 21, 335-359.

Lidz, C. 1991 ‘Practitioners guide to dynamic assessment’. New York: Guilford Press.

Liu, M. (2007). Anxiety in oral English testing situations. ITL: International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 153, 53-76.

O’ Sullivan, B. (2006). Modelling Performance in Oral Language Tests: Language Testing and Evaluation. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Poehner, M. E. (2005). Dynamic assessment of oral proficiency among advanced L2 learners of French. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

Richards, J. C. (2006). Communicative Language Teaching Today. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Sadighi, F. & Dastpak, M. (2017). The Sources of Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety of Iranian English Language Learners. International Journal of Education & Literacy Studies,5 (4), 111-115.

Siwathaworn, P. &Wudthayagorn, J. (2018) The impact of dynamic assessment on tertiary EFL students’ speaking skills, The Asian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 5(1), pp. 142-155.

Sternberg, R. J., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2002). Dynamic testing: The nature and measurement of learning potential. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Vygotsky, L. S. 1978 ‘Mind in society’ in M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, and E. Souberman, (eds), The development of higher psychological processes. London: Harvard University Press.

Wolf, L. F., & Smith, J. K. (1995). The consequence of consequence: motivation, anxiety, andtest performance. Applied Measurement in Education, 8, 227-242.

Weisgerber, J. (2015). Bridging the Gap Between Instruction and Assessment: Examining the Role of Dynamic Assessment in the Oral Proficiency Skills of English-as-an-Additional-Language Learners. The Arbutus Review,6(1), 25-40.

Yahya, M. (2013). Measuring speaking anxiety among speech communication course students at the Arab American University of Jenin (AAUJ). European Social Sciences Research Journal, 1(3), 229-248.

Yılmaz Yakışık, B., & Çakır, A. (2017). Dynamic assessment of prospective English teachers’ speaking skills. European Journal of English Language Teaching, 2(1), 22–53.

Young, D. J. (1991). The relationship between anxiety and foreign language oral proficiency ratings. In E. K. Horwitz& D. J. Young (Eds.), Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications (pp. 57-63). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Zhang, W. & Liu, M. (2013). Evaluating the Impact of Oral Test Anxiety and Speaking Strategy Use on Oral English Performance. The journal of Asia TEFL, 10(2),115-148.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2010-2019 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

Advances in Language and Literary Studies

You may require to add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.