Effect of a Four Weeks Aerobic Training Intervention on Body Fat Percentage and Physical Fitness Indices among 5 to 6-year-old Obese, Overweight and Normal Weight Children: A Quasi-experimental Study

Sanaz Akhavan Rad, Nasiri Mokhtar, Frank Kiwanuka

Abstract


Background: Optimal physical activity and functional fitness is fundamental in children. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a four-weeks aerobic training intervention on body fat percentage and selected physical fitness indices among five to six-years-old obese, overweight and normal weight children. Methods: A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test study design was used; a statistical sample of 20 preschool girls participated in the study. One group (n=10) comprised of normal weight children and another for overweight and obese children (n=10). SPSS Version 21 was used for data analysis, a 95% level of significance was considered. Paired independent t-test and Analysis of Covariance were used to test the impact of the intervention within and between groups. Results: the intervention had a significant influence on body weight (p=0.023), BMI (p=0.025), flexibility (p=0.005) and muscular endurance (p=0.001) among children with obesity or overweight. It also showed a significant influence on balance (p=0.03) among normal weight children. However, it showed no significant difference between groups with exception of balance (p=0.002). Conclusions: The four-weeks training intervention had a significant difference on some physical fitness indices among children aged 5 to 6 years with obesity or overweight. Programmed aerobic training interventions can be used to achieve optimal body fat percentage and improve on some physical fitness indices among children.

Keywords


Obesity, Children, Body Mass Index, Aerobic Exercises, Body Fat

Full Text:

PDF

References


American Thoracic Society Committee on Proficiency Standards for Clinical Pulmonary Function Laboratories. (2002). ATS statement: guidelines for the six-minute walk test. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 166(1), 111–117. doi:10.1164/ajrccm.166.1.at1102

Braaksma, P., Stuive, I., Garst, R. M. E., Wesselink, C. F., van der Sluis, C. K., Dekker, R., & Schoemaker, M. M. (2018). Characteristics of physical activity interventions and effects on cardiorespiratory fitness in children aged 6-12 years-A systematic review. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport / Sports Medicine Australia, 21(3), 296–306. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2017.07.015

Farsani, P. A., & Rezaeimanesh, D. (2011). The effect of six-week aerobic interval training on some blood lipids and VO2max in female athlete students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 2144–2148.

Global Burden of Disease. 2015 Obesity Collaborators, Afshin, A., Forouzanfar, M. H., Reitsma, M. B., Sur, P., Estep, K., … Moradi-Lakeh, M. (2017). Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity in 195 Countries over 25 Years. The New England Journal of Medicine, 377(1), 13–27. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1614362

Jagadesan, S., Harish, R., Miranda, P., Unnikrishnan, R., Anjana, R. M., & Mohan, V. (2014). Prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children and adolescents in Chennai. Indian Pediatrics, 51(7), 544–549. doi:10.1007/s13312-014-0444-6

Janz, K. F., Nielsen, D. H., Cassady, S. L., Cook, J. S., Wu, Y. T., & Hansen, J. R. (1993). Cross-validation of the Slaughter skinfold equations for children and adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 25(9), 1070–1076.

Larsen, M. N., Nielsen, C. M., Madsen, M., Manniche, V., Hansen, L., Bangsbo, J., … Hansen, P. R. (2018). Cardiovascular adaptations after 10 months of intense school-based physical training for 8- to 10-year-old children. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 28 Suppl 1, 33–41. doi:10.1111/sms.13253

Larsen, M. N., Nielsen, C. M., Ørntoft, C., Randers, M. B., Helge, E. W., Madsen, M., … Krustrup, P. (2017). Fitness Effects of 10-Month Frequent Low-Volume Ball Game Training or Interval Running for 8-10-Year-Old School Children. BioMed Research International, 2017, 2719752. doi:10.1155/2017/2719752

Mayorga-Vega, D., Merino-Marban, R., & Viciana, J. (2014). Criterion-Related Validity of Sit-and-Reach Tests for Estimating Hamstring and Lumbar Extensibility: a Meta-Analysis. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 13(1), 1–14.

McGuigan, M. R., Tatasciore, M., Newton, R. U., & Pettigrew, S. (2009). Eight weeks of resistance training can significantly alter body composition in children who are overweight or obese. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(1), 80–85. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181876a56

McNarry, M., & Jones, A. (2014). The influence of training status on the aerobic and anaerobic responses to exercise in children: a review. European Journal of Sport Science, 14 Suppl 1, S57–68. doi:10.1080/17461391.2011.643316

Mirmohammadi, S.-J., Hafezi, R., Mehrparvar, A. H., Rezaeian, B., & Akbari, H. (2011). Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Iranian School Children in Different Ethnicities. Iranian Journal of Pediatrics, 21(4), 514–520.

Non Communicable Diseases-Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC). (2017). Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults. The Lancet, 390(10113), 2627–2642. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32129-3

Safrit, M. J. (1990). The validity and reliability of fitness tests for children: A review. Pediatric Exercise Science, 2(1), 9–28. doi:10.1123/pes.2.1.9

Schwartz, C., King, N. A., Perreira, B., Blundell, J. E., & Thivel, D. (2017). A systematic review and meta-analysis of energy and macronutrient intake responses to physical activity interventions in children and adolescents with obesity. Pediatric Obesity, 12(3), 179–194. doi:10.1111/ijpo.12124

Sigal, R. J., Kenny, G. P., Boulé, N. G., Wells, G. A., Prud’homme, D., Fortier, M., … Jaffey, J. (2007). Effects of aerobic training, resistance training, or both on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine, 147(6), 357–369. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-147-6-200709180-00005

Vanhelst, J., Fardy, P. S., Salleron, J., & Béghin, L. (2013). The six-minute walk test in obese youth: reproducibility, validity, and prediction equation to assess aerobic power. Disability and Rehabilitation, 35(6), 479–482. doi:10.3109/09638288.2012.699581

World Health Organisation | Mean Body Mass Index (BMI). Retrieved November 19, 2018, Available at: http://www.who.int/gho/ncd/risk_factors/bmi_text/en/




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijkss.v.7n.1p.12

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2020 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science

You may require to add the 'aiac.org.au' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.