How Different Sports Establish Different Athletic Identity Levels

Helen (Masoumeh) Hadiyan, Mahmoud Sheikh

Abstract


Background: In order for coaches and sport psychologist help athletes to improve their athletic identity, they need to be aware of athletes’ athletic identity with different sporting background. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine different levels of athletic identity among different types of sports and also more specifically, between team and individual sports. Methodology: A sample of 107 athletes (57 women and 50 men) who were members of national teams in taekwondo, karate, wushu, basketball, volleyball, and canoe polo were selected. Athletic identity questionnaire was used. To identify athletic identity and its four sub categories differences among six groups and also between team and individual sports One way Manova and independent T-test were used respectively. Results: The findings showed that different sports influence athletic identity. F (2,350) = 5.41, p < 0.005. The highest athletic identity was observed within taekwondo athletes. The second and third highest were in karate and wushu athletes, followed by basketball, volleyball, and canoe polo. Canoe polo was the only team that had significant differences in total athletic identity, and three sub categories: self-identity, social identity, and exclusively compared to other sports. While karate athletes had the highest exclusively, taekwondo athletes had the highest score on self-identity, social identity, and negative affectivity. There was no significant difference on negative affectivity among all six groups, indicating that facing up to a fail or physical injury is very difficult for all athletes. Conclusion: The findings suggest coaches and sport psychologists should take these different identity levels and the reasons causing them into account when they work with different athletes within different sports.
Keywords: Athletic identity (AI (, self-identity, social identity, negative affectively, exclusively


Full Text:

PDF

References


Anderson, C.B. (2004). Athletic Identity and its relation to exercise behavior: Scale development and Initial Validation. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 26, 39-57.

Blaschko, T. M., and Burlingame, J. (2002). Assessment tools for recreational therapy and related fields (3rd ed.). Ravensdale, WA: Idyll Arbor Inc.

Brewer, B.W., Shelby, C.L., Linder, D.E., and Petitpas, A.J. (1999). Distancing oneself from a poor season: Divestment of athletic identity. Journal of Personal and Interpersonal Loss, 4, 149-162.

Brewer, B. W., Van Raalte, J. L., and Linder, D. E. (1993). Athletic identity: Hercules’ muscles or Achilles heel? International Journal of Sport Psychology, 24, 237–254.

Brewer, B.W., Van Raalte, J.L. and Petitpas, A.J. (2000). In D.Lavallee and P.Wylleman (Eds.), Career Transitions in Sport: International perspectives, 29-43. Morgontown, WV: Fitness International Technology.

Callero, 1985. Role-Identity Salience. Social Psychology Quarterly, 48, 203-215.

Chen, S., Snyder, S., and Maner, M. (2010). The effect of sport participation on student-athletes’ and none athlete students’ social life and identity, Journal of Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics, 3, 176-193.

Danish, S. J. (1983). Musing about personal competence: the contributions of sport, health, and fitness. American Journal Community Psychology, 7, 221-40.

Duda, J. L. (1999). Advances in Sport and Exercise Psychology Measurement. Morgantown, WV: Fitness International Technology.

Groff, D.G., and Zabriskie, R. B. (2006). An exploratory study of athletic identity among elite alpine skiers with physical disabilities: Issues of measurement and design. Journal of Sport Behaviour, 29, 126-141.

Grove. J. R., Fish, M., and Eklund, R. C. (2004). Changes in athletic identity following team selection: Self-protection versus self-enhancement. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 16, 75-81.

Hadiyan, M., and Azadi, A. (2012) .The Effect of Sport Environments on Athletic Identity and Physical Injury, Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 15 (1), 136

Hale, B. D., James, B., and Stambulova, N. (1999). Determining the dimensionality of athletic identity: A Herculean cross-cultural undertaking. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 30, 83-100.

Horton,R.S. and Mack, D.E. (2000). Athletic Identity in Marathon Runners: Functional Focus or Dysfunctional Commitment? Journal of Sport Behaviour, 23(2), 101-120.

Kargarfard, M., Shariat, A., Shaw,B. S., Shaw, I., Lam, E.T.C., Kheiri, A., Eatemadyboroujeni, A., and Tamrin, S.B.M. (2015). Effects of polluted air on cardiovascular and hematological parameters after progressive maximal aerobic exercise, Springer Science, 193:275–281.

Lamont-Mills, A., and Christensen, S. a. (2006). Athletic identity and its relationship to sport participation levels. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 9(6), 472–478.

Martin, J. J., Adams-Mushett, C., and Eklund, R. (1994). Factor structure of the athletic identity measurement scale with adolescent swimmers with disabilities, Brazilian International Journal of Adapted Physical Education, 1, 87-99.

Martin, L. A., Fogarty, G. J., & Albion, M. J. (2014). Changes in Athletic Identity and Life Satisfaction of Elite Athletes as a Function of Retirement Status. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 26(1), 96–110

Verkooijen, K. T., van Hove, P., and Dik, G. (2012). Athletic Identity and Well-Being among Young Talented Athletes who Live at a Dutch Elite Sport Center. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 24(1), 106–113.

Werthner, P., and Orlick, T. (1986). Retirement experiences of successful Olympic athletes. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 17, 337–363.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2020 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science

You may require to add the 'aiac.org.au' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.