Opinions of Teacher Candidates on Inclusive Education: A Parallel Mixed Method Study

Hatice Leblebici, Azmi Türkan


In this study, teacher candidates’ attitudes, self-efficacy perceptions towards inclusive education, and their situation towards in-class practices were determined. A total of a hundred thirty three pre-service teachers participated in the research voluntarily. The study was designed according to the parallel mixed methods research in which both quantitative and qualitative data (QUAN + QUAL) were used together. As data collection tools, “Attitude Scale towards Inclusive Education”, “Self-Efficacy Scale for Inclusive Education” and “In-class Practice Scale for Inclusive Education” were used. In addition, during the collection of qualitative data, teacher candidates were asked to complete the statement, “In my opinion, inclusive education is like…. because….” To determine their metaphorical perceptions. When the results of the study were examined, teacher candidates, it was determined that the perceptions of self-efficacy towards inclusive education and the concern for personal equipment differ in terms of various variables. In addition, the participants chose the positive metaphors that they produced for inclusive education. Among these metaphors, respect for differences, acceptance of diversity is expressed as coexistence due to the structure of inclusive education that unites society.


Attitude, Classroom Practices, Inclusive Education, Parallel Mixed Methods Research, Self-Efficacy, Teacher Candidates

Full Text:



Akınlar, A. (2018). Investigating multicultural education in the minority and public high schools in Turkey: A multiple case study (Doctoral dissertation). Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul.

Ainscow, M. (2020). Inclusion and equity in education: Making sense of global challenges. Prospects Comparative Journal of Curriculum, Learning, and Assessment 49, 123–134. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11125-020-09506-w.

Bayram, B. (2019). Social studies teachers perception and practices for inclusive education. (Unpublished master’s thesis). University of Gazi Erciyes, Kayseri.

Belet, Ş. D. (2009). Students’, parents’, and teachers’ views on bilingual Turkish students’ learning of mother tongue (Fjell Primary School Case, Norway). Selcuk University the Journal of Institute of Social Sciences, 21, 71-85. http://dergisosyalbil.selcuk.edu.tr/susbed/article/view/308.

Bursa, S., & Ersoy, A. F. (2020). Social studies pre-service teachers elective course preferences in 2018 teacher training program. Dicle University Journal of Ziya Gökalp Faculty of Education, 37, 59-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.14582/DUZGEF.2020.140.

Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2011). Sosyal Bilimler Için Veri Analizi El Kitabı [Manual of Data Analysis for Social Sciences]. (15th ed.) PegemA Publishing.

Carrington, S., & Robinson, R. (2007). A case study of inclusive school development: A journey of learning. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 8(2), 141-153. https://doi.org/10.1080/1360311032000158024.

Ceyhan, M.A. (2016). Kapsayıcı Eğitim: Okul Pratikleri, Öğretmen Ihtiyaçları [Inclusive Education: School Practices, Teacher Needs]. Imak Publishing. http://www.egitimreformugirisimi.org/wpcontent/uploads/2017/03/ERG_KapsayiciEgitim_OgretmenIhtiyaclari.pdf.

Creswell, J. W. (2002). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative. Prentice-Hall.

Creswell, J. W., & Plano-Clark, V. L. (2011). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Dias, D., & Soares, D. (2017). Civic learning outcomes: A step towards inclusive higher education. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 22(4), 360-374. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2017.1365956.

ERG. (2019). Education Monitoring Report 2019: Students and access to education. https://www.egitimreformugirisimi.org/yayin/egitim-izleme-raporu-2019-ogrenciler-ve-egitime-erisim

Erol-Sahillioğlu, D. (2020). Preschool teachers’ views of the “inclusive education” concept: A metaphor analysis. Journal of Inclusive Education in Research and Practice, 1(1), 24-41. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/jierp/issue/56579/758186.

Forlin, C., & Chambers, D. J. (2011). Teacher preparation for inclusive education: Increasing knowledge but raising concerns. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 39(1), 17-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1359866X.2010.540850.

Gause, C. P. (2011). Diversity, Equity, and Inclusive Education: A Voice from the Margins. Sense Publishers.

Greene, J. C., Kreider, H., & Mayer, E. (2005). Combining qualitative and quantitative methods in social inquiry. In B. Somekh & C. Lewin (Eds.), Research Methods In The Social Sciences (pp. 274-281). Sage.

Göl, H., & Sakız, H. (2020). Designing an inclusive guidance program in preschool education. Nitel Sosyal Bilimler, 2(2), 90-115. DOI: 10.47105/nsb.775160.

Güneş, F. (2019). Literacy approaches. The Journal of Limitless Education and Research, 4(3), 224-246. DOI: 10.29250/sead.634908.

Gürdoğan-Bayır, Ö. (2019). Education process with children in disadvantaged groups: Views of preservice elementary school teachers. Eskişehir Osmangazi University Journal of Social Sciences, 451-464. DOI: 10.17494/ogusbd.548528.

Inclusive Education Project. (2018). https://oygm.meb.gov.tr/www/kapsayici-egitim-projesi-inclusive- education/icerik/679.

Kardaş, D. (2014). Factors affecting reading and comprehension skills of children accepted as disadvantaged and solutions. (Doctoral dissertation). Gazi University, Ankara.

Mariga, L., McConkey, R. & Myezwa, H. (2014). Inclusive Education In Low-Income Countries: A Resource Book for Teacher Educators, Parent Trainers, and Community Development Workers. Cape Town: Atlas Alliance and Disability Innovations Africa. https://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/Inclusive_Education_in_Low_Income_Countries.pdf

Mitchell, R. (2017) Inclusive education in Uganda: Examples of best practice. Enable-Ed. https://afri-can.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Inclusive-Education-in-Uganda-examples-of-best-practice-March-2017.pdf

OECD. (2014). Equity, Excellence, and Inclusiveness in Education Policy Lessons from Around the World. https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/9789264214033-en.pdf?expires=1614348114&id=id&accname=guest&checksum=1029FE15C5A8F66B2993BF48CCB8245F

Ozan, M., Ş ener, G., Polat, H., & Yaraş , Z. (2015). Swot analysis for education sector: The sample of Elazığ City. Fırat University Journal of Harput Studies 2(1), 125-148. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/had/issue/32297/358845.

Öztürk, H., Ballıoğlu, G., & Şen, G. (2014). An investigation of teacher candidates’ attitudes towards inclusive practices in special education. MUSKU Journal of Education, 1(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.21666/mskuefd.20982.

Patton, M. Q. (2014). Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods Integrating Theory and Practice (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage Publications.

Polat, Ö., & Özkabak-Yıldız, T. (2018). The effects of respect for diversity program with family involvement on 5 and 6 year old children respect for diversity. Journal of Theory and Practice in Education, 14(4), 389-403. DOI: 10.17244/eku.466812

Rutz, H. J., & Balkan E. M., (2009). Reproducing Class: Education, Neoliberalism, and the Rise of the New Middle Class in Istanbul. H2O

Sanchez, P. A. (2012). Effective and inclusive schools: How to promote their development. Educatio Siglo XXI, 30(1), 25-44. https://revistas.um.es/educatio/article/view/149121/132111.

Şimşek, H., Dağıstan, A., Şahin, C., Koçyiğit, E., Dağıstan Yalçınkaya, G., Kart, M., & Dağdelen, S. (2019).The traces of multiculturalism in the primary education programs in Turkey within the context of inclusive education. Ahi Evran University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 5(2), 177-197. https://doi.org/10.31592/aeusbed.563388

Şimşir, Z, & Dilmaç, B. (2018). Problems teachers face and solution proposals in the schools where the foreign students are educated. Ilkogretim Online, 17(2), 1116 -1134. doi:10.17051/ilkonline.2018.419647

Taneri, P. O. (Ed.). (2019). Inclusive Education from Theory to Practice. PegemA Publishing.

Uchem, R. N., & Ngwa, E. S. (2014). Inclusive education policy implementation in post-apartheid South Africa: Lessons for Nigeria and Cameroon. Journal of Education and Practice, 5(36), 92-100. https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=

UN Convention, (2010). European Disability Strategy 2010-2020: A Renewed Commitment to a Barrier-Free Europe. Brussels https://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2010:0636:FIN: en:PDF

UN (United Nations) (2015). Universal Declaration of Human Rights https://www.un.org/en/udhrbook/pdf/udhr_booklet_en_web.pdf

UNESCO. (2015). Incheon Declaration and Framework for Action for the Implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 4. Paris: UNESCO. http://uis.unesco.org/sites/default/files/documents/education-2030-incheon-framework-for-action-implementation-of-sdg4-2016-en_2.pdf

UNESCO. (2017). A Guide for Ensuring Inclusion and Equity in Education. Paris: UNESCO. http://www.unesco.org/new/en/mediaservices/singleview/news/a_guide_for_ensuring_inclusion_and_equity_in_education

UNICEF. (2017). Creating a Fair Chance for Children with Disabilities Through Inclusive Education. https://www.unicef.org/turkey/en/press-releases/creating-fair-chance-children-disabilities-through-inclusive-education.

Warrington, M. (2005). Mirage in the desert? Access to educational opportunities in an area of social exclusion. Antipode, 37(4), 796-816. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0066-4812.2005.00526.x.

Yılmaz, F., & Ş ekerci, H. (2016). The issue of the mother tongue: Problems of students based on the experience of primary school teachers. Journal of Qualitative Research in Education, 4(1), 47-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.14689/issn.2148- 2624.1.4c1s3m

YÖK. (2018a). Higher Education Institution Guidance and Psychological Counseling UndergraduateProgram.https://www.yok.gov.tr/Documents/Kurumsal/egitim_ogretim_dairesi/Yeni-Ogretmen-Yetistirme-Lisans-Programlari/Rehberlik_ve_Psikolojik_Danismanlik_Lisans_Programi.pdf

YÖK. (2018b). Higher Education Institution Classroom Teaching Undergraduate Program. https://www.yok.gov.tr/Documents/Kurumsal/egitim_ogretim_dairesi/Yeni-Ogretmen-Yetistirme-Lisans-Programlari/Sinif_Ogretmenligi_Lisans_Programi09042019.pdf

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijels.v.9n.4p.32


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2021 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies  

You may require to add the 'aiac.org.au' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.