The Relations Among University Students’ Academic Self-efficacy, Academic Motivation, and Self-control and Self-management Levels

Soner ARIK


Self-control and self-management, academic motivation and academic self-efficacy are among several variables that affect academic achievement. Although they are widely studied in literature, there is lack of study that deals with them together in one study. This study investigates the relations between self-control and self-management, academic motivation and academic self-efficacy levels of university students. A group of 588 students at a state university in Turkey participated in the study. The data were collected through ‘Academic Motivation Scale’, ‘Academic Self-Efficacy Scale’, ‘Self-Control and Self-Management Scale’ and a Personal Profile Form that was prepared by the researcher. In line with the purpose of the research, a structural equation model regarding the predictive power of Academic Self-Efficacy level on Academic Motivation and Self-Control and Self-Management levels, and the predictive power of Academic Motivation level on Self-Control and Self-Management level was set. According to the results of the research, it is clear that academic self-efficacy is a significant predictor of both academic motivation and self-control and self-management of university students but academic motivation does not predict self-control and self-management. The research results were discussed within the literature and several recommendations were made in accordance with them.


Self-control and Self-management, Academic Motivation, Academic Self-efficacy, Academic Achievement

Full Text:



Achtziger, A., & Bayer, U. C. (2018). Self-control mediates the link between gender and academic achievement in sex-stereotyped school subjects in elementary and in higher secondary schools. Current Psychology, 37, 1-13.

Akbay, S. E., & Gizir, C. A. (2010). Cinsiyete göre üniversite öğrencilerinde akademik erteleme davranışı: akademik güdülenme, akademik özyeterlik ve akademik yükleme stillerinin rolü. [Academic Procrastination among University Students According to Gender: The Role of Academic Motivation, Academic Self-efficacy and Academic Attributional Styles] Mersin Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi [Mersin University Journal of the Faculty of Education], 6(1).

Alderman, M. K. (2004). Motivation for achievement: Possibilities for teaching and learning (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers

Alexander, P. A. (2006). Psychology in learning and instruction. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Alivernini, F., & Lucidi, F. (2011). Relationship between social context, self-efficacy, motivation, academic achievement, and intention to drop out of high school: A longitudinal study. The Journal of Educational Research, 104(4), 241-252.

Alves-Martins, M., Peixoto, F., Gouveia-Pereira, M., Amaral, V., & Pedro, I. (2002). Self-esteem and academic achievement among adolescents. Educational psychology, 22(1), 51-62.

Amrai, K., Motlagh, S. E., Zalani, H. A., & Parhon, H. (2011). The relationship between academic motivation and academic achievement students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 399-402.

Areepattamannil, S., Freeman, J. G., & Klinger, D. A. (2011). Intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and academic achievement among Indian adolescents in Canada and India. Social Psychology of Education, 14(3), 427.

Artino Jr, A. R., & Stephens, J. M. (2009). Academic motivation and self-regulation: A comparative analysis of undergraduate and graduate students learning online. The Internet and Higher Education, 12(3-4), 146-151.

Aydın, S. (2015). An analysis of the relationship between high school students' self-efficacy, metacognitive strategy use and their academic motivation for learn biology. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 4(2), 53-59.

Bagozzi RP (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. A comment. J. Mark.Res., 183, 375-381

Balkis, M. (2011). Academic efficacy as a mediator and moderator variable in the relationship between academic procrastination and academic achievement. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 45, 1-16.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.

Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: an agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 1-26.

Baumeister, R. F., & Exline, J. J. (1999). Virtue, personality, and social relations: Self-control as the moral muscle. Journal of Personality, 67, 1165-1194. 6494.00086

Bedel, E. F. (2015). Exploring academic motivation, academic self-efficacy and attitudes toward teaching in pre-service early childhood education teachers. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 4(1), 142-149.

Büyüköztürk Ş (2010). Sosyal bilimler için veri analiz el kitabı [Data Analysis Handbook for Social Sciences]. 11th Ed. Ankara: PegemA Yayıncılık

Carmeli, A., Meitar, R., & Weisberg, J. (2006). Self-leadership skills and innovative behaviour at work. International Journal of Manpower, 27(1), 75-90.

Cerino, E. S. (2014). Relationships Between Academic Motivation, Self-Efficacy, and Academic Procrastination. Psi Chi. Journal of Psychological Research, 19(4).

Cleary, T. J., & Kitsantas, A. (2017). Motivation and self-regulated learning influences on middle school mathematics achievement. School Psychology Review, 46(1), 88-107.

Covarrubias, R., & Stone, J. (2015). Self-monitoring strategies as a unique predictor of Latino male student achievement. Journal of Latinos and Education, 14(1), 55-70.

De Feyter, T., Caers, R., Vigna, C., & Berings, D. (2012). Unravelling the impact of the Big Five personality traits on academic performance: The moderating and mediating effects of self-efficacy and academic motivation. Learning and individual Differences, 22(4), 439-448.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227–268

Diamond, A. (2013). Executive functions. Annual review of psychology, 64, 135-168.

Diamond, A., & Lee, K. (2011). Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4 to 12 years old. Science, 333, 959-964.

Dogan, U. (2015) Student Engagement, Academic Self-efficacy, and Academic Motivation as Predictors of Academic Performance, The Anthropologist, 20,3, 553-561, DOI: 10.1080/09720073.2015.11891759

Doménech-Betoret, F., Abellán-Roselló, L., & Gómez-Artiga, A. (2017). Self-Efficacy, Satisfaction, and Academic Achievement: The Mediator Role of Students' Expectancy-Value Beliefs. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 1193.

Dorman, J. P., Fisher, D. L., & Waldrip, B. G. (2006). Classroom environment, students' perceptions of assessment, academic efficacy and attitude to science: a lisrel analysis. In Fisher D. L. & Khine M. S. (Eds.), Contemporary approaches to research on learning environments: Worldviews (pp.1-28). Singapore: World Scientific Publishing: Singapore.

Duckworth, A. L. (2011). The significance of self-control. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(7), 2639–2640. doi:10.1073/pnas.1019725108

Duckworth, A. L., & Seligman, M. E. (2006). Self-discipline gives girls the edge: Gender in self-discipline, grades, and achievement test scores. Journal of educational psychology, 98(1), 198.

Duckworth, A. L., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2005). Self-discipline outdoes IQ in predicting academic performance of adolescents. Psychological Science, 16, 939–944

Duckworth, A., & Gross, J. J. (2014). Self-control and grit: Related but separable determinants of success. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23(5), 319-325.

Ekici, G. (2012). Akademik Öz-Yeterlik Ölçeği: Türçeye Uyarlama, Geçerlik ve Güvenirlik Çalışması [Academic self-efficacy scale: The study of adaptation to Turkish, validity and reliability]. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi [Hacettepe University Journal of Faculty of Education], 43(43).

Ercoşkun, M. H. (2016). Adaptation of Self-Control and Self-Management Scale (SCMS) into Turkish Culture: A Study on Reliability and Validity. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 16(4), 1125-1145.

Fife, J. E., Bond, S., & Byars-Winston, A. (2011). Correlates and predictors of academic self-efficacy among African-American students. Education, 132(1).

Filiz, B., & Demirhan, G. (2018). Akademik ve spor başarı motivasyonu arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi. SPORMETRE Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 16(2), 138-152.

Fujita, K. (2008). Seeing the forest beyond the trees: A construal level approach to self-control. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2, 1475–1496.

Fujita, K. (2011). On conceptualizing self-control as more than the effortful inhibition of impulses. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 15(4), 352-366.

Furnham, A., Chamorro-Premuzic, T., & McDougall, F. (2003). Personality, cognitive ability, on behalf about intelligence as predictors of academic performance. Learning and Individual Differences, 14, 47–64.

Gawrilow, C., Fäsche, A., Guderjahn, L., Gunzenhauser, C., Merkt, J., & von Suchodoletz, A. (2014). The impact of self-regulation on preschool mathematical achievement. Child Indicators Research, 7(4), 805-820.

Guay, F., Ratelle, C. F., Roy, A., & Litalien, D. (2010). Academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement: Mediating and additive effects. Learning and Individual Differences, 20(6), 644-653.

Hair JF Jr, Anderson RE, Tahtam RL, Black W (1998). Multivariate data analysis. 5th Ed. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall International Inc

Hassankhani, H., Aghdam, A. M., Rahmani, A., & Mohammadpoorfard, Z. (2015). The relationship between learning motivation and self-efficacy among nursing students. Research and Development in Medical Education, 4(1), 97.

Hockey, G. R. J., & Earle, F. (2006). Control over the scheduling of simulated office work reduces the impact of workload on mental fatigue and task performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 12, 50–65.

Hoyle RH (1995). Structural equation modelling: concepts, issues and applications. London: Sage Publication Inc

Hsieh, P., Sullivan, J. R., & Guerra, N. S. (2007). A closer look at college students: Self-efficacy and goal orientation. Journal of Advanced Academics, 18(3), 454-476.

Hutchison, M. A., Follman, D. K., Sumpter, M., & Bodner, G. M. (2006). Factors influencing the self‐efficacy beliefs of first‐year engineering students. Journal of Engineering Education, 95(1), 39-47.

Inzlicht, M., Legault, L., & Teper, R. (2014). Exploring the mechanisms of self-control improvement. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23(4), 302-307.

Inzlicht, M., Schmeichel, B. J., & Macrae, C. N. (2014). Why self-control seems (but may not be) limited. Trends in cognitive sciences, 18(3), 127-133.

Karagüven, M. H. (2012). Akademik motivasyon ölçeğinin Türkçeye adaptasyonu [The adaptation of the academic motivation scale into Turkish]. Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 12(4), 2599-2620.

Karasar, N. (2006). Bilimsel Araştırma Yöntemi (Scientific Research Method). Ankara: Nobel Yayın Dağıtım.

Khalaila, R. (2015). The relationship between academic self-concept, intrinsic motivation, test anxiety, and academic achievement among nursing students: Mediating and moderating effects. Nurse Education Today, 35(3), 432-438.

Kilicoglu, G. (2018). Study on the Relationship between Social Studies Course Self-Efficacy and Motivation Levels of Secondary School Students. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 6(8), 1743-1748.

Lavasani, M. G., Mirhosseini, F. S., Hejazi, E., & Davoodi, M. (2011). The effect of self-regulation learning strategies training on the academic motivation and self-efficacy. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 627-632.

Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., Schmidt, J., Brenner, B., Lyons, H., & Treistman, D. (2003). Relation of contextual supports and barriers to choice behavior in engineering majors: Test of alternative social cognitive models. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50, 458–465.

Li-Grining, C. P., Votruba-Drzal, E., Maldonado-Carreño, C., & Haas, K. (2010). Children’s early approaches to learning and academic trajectories through fifth grade. Developmental Psychology, 46(5), 1062–1077. doi:10.1037/a0020066

Lin, T. (2012). Student Engagement and Motivation in the Foreign Language Classroom (Unpublished PhD Thesis). United States: Washington State University.

McGeown, S. P., Putwain, D., Simpson, E. G., Boffey, E., Markham, J., & Vince, A. (2014). Predictors of adolescents' academic motivation: Personality, self-efficacy and adolescents' characteristics. Learning and Individual Differences, 32, 278-286.

Mezo, P. G. (2009). The self-control and self-management scale (SCMS): Development of an adaptive self-regulatory coping skills instrument. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 31(2), 83-93.

Moffitt, T. E., Arseneault, L., Belsky, D., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J., Harrington, H. & Sears, M. R. (2011). A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(7), 2693-2698. Ormond J., E. (2006). Educational Psychology: Developing Learners (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Özsoy, İ. (2012). Örgüt iklimi, öz liderlik ve iş tatmininin Ar-Ge performansına etkisi: Savunma sanayiinde bir araştırma [The effect of organizational climate, self-leadership and job satisfaction on research-development performance]. Kara Harp Okulu Savunma Bilimleri Enstitüsü Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi [Military Academy Institute for Defence Sciences, (Unpublished Master’s thesis), Ankara.

Pajares, F. (1996). Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Academic Settings. Review of Educational Research, 66(4), 543–578. doi:10.3102/00346543066004543

Pajares, F. (2002). Overview of Social Cognitive Theory and of Self-Efficacy. Retrieved from on 10.09.2010.

Pintrich, P. R., & Schunk, D. H. (2002). Motivation in education: Theory, research and applications. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Merrill.

Poon, J. M., Briscoe, J. P., Abdul-Ghani, R., & Jones, E. A. (2015). Meaning and determinants of career success: a Malaysian perspective. Revista de Psicología del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones, 31(1).

Quimby, J. L., & O’Brien, K. M. (2004). Predictors of student and career decision-making self-efficacy among non-traditional college women. The Career Development Quarterly, 52, 323–339.

Rakes, G. C., & Dunn, K. E. (2010). The Impact of Online Graduate Students' Motivation and Self-Regulation on Academic Procrastination. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 9(1).

Roberts B., W, Chernyshenko, O., S, Stark S. & Goldberg, L., R. (2005). The structure of conscientiousness: An empirical investigation based on seven major personality questionnaires. Person Psychol, 58, 103–139.

Schermelleh-Engel K. & Moosbrugger H (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Meth. Psychol. Res., 8(2) 23-74.

Schunk, D. H., & Pajares, F. (2002). The development of academic self-efficacy. In A. Wigfield & J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Development of achievement motivation (pp. 15-31). Academic Press.

Slavin, R. E. (2006). Educational Psychology Theory and Practise (8th ed.). Boston: Pearson.

Sternberg, R. J., & Williams, W. M. (2009). Educational Psychology (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Pearson.

Şimşek Ö. F. (2007). Yapısal eşitlik modellemesine giriş temel ilkeler ve Lisrel uygulamalari [Introduction to the Structural Equation Modelling: Principles and LISREL Practices]. Ankara: Ekinoks Yayıncılık.

Tabak, A., Sığrı, Ü., & Türköz, T. (2013). Öz Liderlik Ölçeğinin Türkçeye Uyarlanması Çalışması [The study for the adaptation of the self-leadership scale into Turkish]. Bilig, 67, 213.

Tangney, J. P., Baumeister, R. F., & Boone, A. L. (2004). High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success. Journal of Personality, 72, 271–324

Tezbaşaran A. A. (1997). Likert tipi ölçek geliştirme kilavuzu [Handbook for likert-type scale development]. 2nd Edition. Ankara: Türk Psikologlar Derneği Yayınları.

Titrek, O., Çetin, C., Kaymak, E., & Kaşıkçı, M. M. (2018). Academic Motivation and Academic Self-efficacy of Prospective Teachers. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 6(11a), 77-87.

Todd, A. W., Horner, R. H., & Sugai, G. (1999). Self-monitoring and self-recruited praise: Effects on problem behavior, academic engagement, and work completion in a typical classroom. Journal of Positive Behaviour Interventions, 1(2), 66-122.

Trevathan, V., L. (2002). A profile of psychosocial, learning style, family, and academic self-efficacy characteristics of the transition program students at North Carolina State University (Unpublished doctoral thesis). North Carolina State University, Raleigh.

Turner, E. A., Chandler, M., & Heffer, R. W. (2009). The influence of parenting styles, achievement motivation, and self-efficacy on academic performance in college students. Journal of college student development, 50(3), 337-346.

Vallerand, R. J. (1997). Toward a hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. In Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 29, pp. 271-360). Academic Press.

Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L. G., Blais, M. R, Brière, N. M., Senécal, C., & Vallières, E. F. (1992). The academic motivation scale: a measure of intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation in education. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52, 1003-1017.

Vansteenkiste, M., Sierens, E., Soenens, B., Luyckx, K., & Lens, W. (2009). Motivational profiles from a self-determination perspective: The quality of motivation matters. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(3), 671−688.

Wettersten, K. B., Guilmino, A., Herrick, C. G., Hunter, P. J., Kim, G. Y., Jagow, D. & McCormick, J. (2005). Predicting educational and vocational attitudes among rural high school students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52, 658–663.

Wiese, C. W., Tay, L., Duckworth, A. L., D’Mello, S., Kuykendall, L., Hofmann, W., Vohs, K. D. (2017). Too much of a good thing? Exploring the inverted-U relationship between self-control and happiness. Journal of Personality, 86(3), 380–396. doi:10.1111/jopy.12322

Wilson, K., & Lizzio, A. (2008, June). A ‘just in time intervention’ to support the academic efficacy of at-risk first-year students. In 11th Pacific Rim First Year in Higher Education Conference.

Wright, S. L., Perrone‐McGovern, K. M., Boo, J. N., & White, A. V. (2014). Influential factors in academic and career self‐efficacy: Attachment, supports, and career barriers. Journal of Counselling & Development, 92(1), 36-46.

Yaka, A. İ. (2011). Bağlanma, erken döneme yönelik şemalar, öz-yönetim ve psikolojik belirtiler arasındaki ilişkiler [The relationship between adult attachment styles, early maladaptive schemas, self-regulatory and psychological symptoms] (Master’s thesis, Ankara University Social Sciences Institute, Ankara, Turkey). Retrieved from https://tez.

Yusuf, M. (2011). The impact of self-efficacy, achievement motivation, and self-regulated learning strategies on students’ academic achievement. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 2623-2626.

Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attaining Self-Regulation: A Social Cognitive Perspective. In M. Boekaerts, Zeidner M. & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Handbook of Self-Regulation, (pp. 13–39). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Zimmerman, B. J., & Kitsantas, A. (2005). Homework practices and academic achievement: The mediating role of self-efficacy and perceived responsibility beliefs. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 30(4), 397–417. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2005.05.003



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2019 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies  

You may require to add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.