The Effect of Explicit Instruction of Discourse Markers on the Quality of Oral Output

Forough Rahimi, Mohammad Javad Riasati

Abstract


The present study was an attempt to investigate the effect of explicit vs. implicit instruction of discourse markers (DMs hereafter) on learners’ oral production. To this end, 40 Iranian adult EFL learners (including both males and females) with the age range of 23 to 30 years of age were randomly selected. The sample was randomly divided into two equal groups with 20 members. The control group attending the speaking course received no explicit instruction on DMs, while participants in the experimental group attending the same course, received an explicit treatment on DMs. The experimental group received five sessions of explicit instruction on DMs, consuming 20 minutes of the class time. The data required for the study was collected through semi-structure interview with the participants of the study who spoke on similar topics. Results indicate that the participants in the control group who were exposed to implicit way of teaching discourse markers did not show to use discourse markers frequently. In contrast, the learners in the experimental group who received explicit instruction on discourse markers proved that they used discourse markers frequently in their speech. The final conclusion is that explicit teaching of discourse markers to learners in the experimental group was useful.


Keywords


Discourse markers, explicit instruction, oral output

Full Text:

PDF

References


Akande. A. T. (2009). Discourse markers in the spontaneous speech of Nigerian university graduates. Lagos Papers in English Studies, 4, 28-37.

Anderson, E. S., Brizuela, M. Dupuy, B. & Gonnerman, L. (1999). Cross-linguistic evidence for the early acquisition of discourse markers as register variables. Journal of Pragmatics 31, 1339-1351.

Anstey, M. (1998). ‘Being explicit about literacy instruction’. The Australian Journal of Language and Literacy. 2, 1, 200-206.

Best, R.M., Rowe, M., Ozuru, Y., & McNamara, D.S. (2005). Deep-level comprehension of science texts: The role of the read and the test. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 25, 1, 65-83.

Blakemore, D. (2002). Relevance and linguistic meaning: The semantics and pragmatics of discourse markers. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Blass, R. (1990). Relevance relations in discourse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Brinton, L. (1996). Pragmatic markers in English: Grammaticalization and discourse functions. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Burns, R.B., & Mason, D.A. (2002). Class composition and student achievement in elementary schools. American Educational Research Journal, 39(1), 207–233.

Chaudron, C. & Richards J. (1986). The effect of discourse markers on the comprehension of lectures. Applied Linguistics 7, 113-127.

Feng, L. (2010). Discourse markers in English writing. The Journal of International Social Research, 3, 11, 299-305.

Flowerdew, J. & Tauroza, D. (1995). The effects of discourse markers on second language lecture comprehension. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 17, 435-458.

Fox, J., E. Schrock. (2002). Basic meanings of you know and I mean. Journal of Pragmatics 34, 727-747.

Fraser, B. (1988). Types of English discourse markers. Acta Linguistica Hungarica 38, 1, 19-33.

Fraser, B. (1990). An approach to discourse markers. Journal of Pragmatics 14, 383- 395.

Fuller, J. M. (2003). The influence of speaker role on discourse marker use. Journal of Pragmatics 35, 23-45.

Fung, L and R, Carter. (2007). Discourse markers and spoken English: Native and learner use in pedagogic settings. Language Teaching Research 11, 2, 159-182.

Heeman, P and J, Allen. (2000). Speech repairs, intonational phrases and discourse markers: Modeling speakers’ utterances in spoken dialogue. Computational Linguistics, 25, 4. 80-122.

Hussein, M. (2005). Two accounts of discourse markers in English. Journal of Pragmatics, 49, 75-86

Jucker, A., & Ziv, Y. (1998). Discourse markers: Descriptions and theory. Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Jung, E. H. (2003). The role of discourse signaling cues in second language listening comprehension. The Modern Language Journal, 87, 562-576.

Jung, J. (2008). Discourse markers in cross-cultural conversation. Working Papers in TESOL & Applied Linguistics, 8, 2, 1-4.

Lee, B. and Jung, C. (2005). Discourse marker teaching in college conversation classrooms: Focus on well, you know, I mean. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lenk, Uta. (1998): Marking discourse coherence: Functions of discourse markers. Tubingen: Gunter Narr Verlag.

Lewis, Diana M. (2003). "Rhetorical motivations for the emergence of discourse particles, with special reference to English of course". In Ton van der Wouden, Ad Foolen and Piet Van de Craen (eds.) Particles (Belgian Journal of Linguistics vol. 16). Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 79-91.

Macaulay, R. (2002). You know, it depends. Journal of Pragmatics 34, 749-767.

Nadie, A. (2007). The use of discourse markers in three academic lectures. Asian EFL Journal 9(1), 22-38.

Ramos, J. (2010). A comparative study of the discourse marker types in the body section of the research papers of DLSU students. TESOL Journal, 2, 62-73.

Redeker, G. (1990). Ideational and pragmatic markers of discourse structure. Journal of Pragmatics 14(3), 367-81.

Schiffrin, D. (1986). Discourse markers: Studies in interactional sociolinguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Schiffrin, D. (1987 ). Discourse markers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Schourup, L. (1999). Discourse markers. Lingua 3(4), 227-265.

Smith, Sara W. & Andreas H. Jucker (2000). Actually and other markers of an apparent discrepancy between propositional attitudes of conversational partners. In G. Andersen & T. Fretheim (eds.) Pragmatic Markers and Propositional Attitude. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Tateyama, Y., Kasper, G., Mui, L., Tay , H., & Thananart, O. (1997). Explicit and implicit teaching of pragmatic routines. In L. Bouton (Ed.), Pragmatics and language learning, Vol. 8 (pp. 163–177). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign University Press.

Vasilescu, I., S, Rosset and M, Decker. (1998). On the role of discourse markers in interactive spoken question answering systems. Journal of Pragmatics, 30, 485-496.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/ijalel.v.1n.1p.70

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2021 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.