Assessment Beliefs and Practices of Libyan Secondary School English Language Teachers

Vahid Nimehchisalem, Marwa M. Abdalla


Despite the increasing concerns about the importance of assessment, the studies that directly address the assessment beliefs and practices among Libyan secondary school English language teachers are scarce. The present study aimed to investigate the Libyan teachers’ classroom-based assessment beliefs and practices and the relationship between them. For this purpose, a total of 90 Libyan English teachers participated in a survey by responding to a questionnaire which explored their beliefs and practices in the four stages of assessment; namely, planning, implementing, monitoring and recording. Based on their perceptions, other than their confusion over ethical matters in assessment, the teachers’ beliefs and practices generally seemed to be at an acceptable level. The results also demonstrated that the relationship between teachers’ beliefs and practices is positively moderate and significant in all stages of assessment. The findings are expected to provide insights into the difficulties encountered by the language teachers and learners in the assessment processes, and therefore, enhance assessment practice and learning conditions.


Assessment Beliefs, Assessment Practices, Classroom-based Assessment, Language Assessment, Libyan Secondary Schools

Full Text:



Adams, T. L., & Hsu, J. W. Y. (1998). Classroom assessment: Teachers’ conceptions and practices in mathematics. School Science and Mathematics, 98(4), 174- 180.

Alhmali, R. (2007). Student attitudes in the context of the curriculum in Libyan education in middle and high schools [Unpublished PhD thesis]. University of Glasgow.

Alshibany, E. (2018). Libyan Teachers’ Beliefs about Teaching English as a Foreign Language at Preparatory and Secondary Schools: Teaching Methodology, Curriculum and Professional Development [Doctoral dissertation], University of Huddersfield.

Arkoudis, S. & O’Loughlin, K. (2004). ‘Tensions between validity and outcomes: Teacher assessment of written work for recently arrived immigrant ESL students.’ Language Testing, 21(3), 284-304

Azis, A. (2015). Conception and practices of assessment: A case of teachers representing improvement conception, TEFLIN Journal, 26(2), 129-154.

Bailey, K. M. (1996). Working for washback: a review of the washback concept in language testing. Language Testing, 13(3), 257-279.

Barnes, N., Fives, H., & Dacey, C. M. (2015). Teachers’ beliefs about assessment. In H. Fives & M. Gill (eds.), International handbook of research on teachers' beliefs (pp. 284-300). New York, NY: Routledge.

Basturkmen, H., Loewen, S., & Eliss, R. (2004). Teachers, stated beliefs about incidental focus on form and their classroom practices. Applied Linguistics, 25(2), 243 272.

Brown, G. T., Kennedy, K. J., Fok, P. K., Chan, J. K. S., & Yu, W. M. (2009). Assessment for student improvement: Understanding Hong Kong teachers’ conceptions and practices of assessment. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 16(3), 347-363.

Bullock, S. M. (2012). Inside teacher education: Challenging prior views of teaching and learning. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

Calveric, S. (2010). Elementary teachers' assessment beliefs and practices (Doctoral Dissertation).

Chew, A. Y. L., & Lee, I. C. H. (2013). Teachers’ beliefs and practices of classroom assessment in Republic Polytechnic, Singapore.

Cizek, G. J. (2010). An introduction to formative assessment: History, characteristics, and challenges. In G. J. Cizek & H. L. Andrade (Eds.), Handbook of formative assessment (pp. 3-17). New York, NY: Routledge.

Cizek, G. J., Fitzgerald, S. M, & Rachor, R. A. (1995). Teachers’ assessment practices: Preparation, isolation, and the kitchen sink. Educational assessment, 3(2), 159-179.

Cross, R. (2010). Language teaching as sociocultural activity: Rethinking language teacher practice. The Modern Language Journal, 94(3), 434-452.

Dalala, J. A. A. (2014). Investigation the Use of the Self-Assessment Processes by Libyan EFL Secondary School Teachers in Assessing Students’ Written Work. [Unpublished Doctoral Thesis]. University of Sunderland.

Davison, C. (2004). The contradictory culture of teacher-based assessment: ESL teacher assessment practices in Australian and Hong Kong secondary schools. Language Testing, 21(3), 305-334.

Duncan, C. R., & Noonan, B. (2007). Factors affecting teachers' grading and assessment practices. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 53(1), 1.

El-Taher Al-Fourganee, Z. (2018). How Secondary School Libyan Teachers Assess Students’ Oral Communication [Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation], University of Sunderland.

Eslami-Rasekh, Z., & Valizadeh, K. (2004). Classroom Activities Viewed from Different Perspectives: Learners' Voice and Teachers' Voice. TESL-EJ, 8(3), 1–13.

GPCE (General People’s Committee of Education) 2008. The development of education: National report of Libya. For the Session (48) of the International Conference on Education. Geneva, from 25-28 November 2008.

Guilford, J. P. (1973). Fundamental statistics in psychology and education (5nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Halpern, D.F., D. Appleby, S.E. Beers, C.L. Cowan, J.J. Furedy, J.S. Halonen, C.P. Horton, B.F. Peden & D.J. Pittenger, (1993). Targeting outcomes: Covering your assessment concerns and need. In T. McGovern & C. Baum (Eds.), Handbook for enhancing undergraduate education in psychology (pp. 23-46). Washington: American Psychological Association.

Hamp-Lyons, L. (1997). Washback, impact and validity: ethical concerns. Language Testing, 14(3), 295-303

Harlen, W. (1994). Enhancing quality in assessment. London: Paul Chapman.

John-Steiner, V. & Mahn, H. (1996). Sociocultural approaches to learning and development: A Vygotskian framework. Educational psychologist, 31(3-4), 191-206.

Johnson, K. E (1992). The relationship between teachers’ beliefs and practices during literacy instruction for non-native speakers of English. Journal of Reading Behavior, 24(1), 83–108.

Lee, H. S. (2017). Malaysian Secondary school English teachers’ perceptions about their beliefs towards school-based assessment [Unpublished MA dissertation]. Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.

Lortie, D. (1975). A sociological study. Journal of Teacher Education, 26, 360-363.

Malone, M. E. (2013). The essentials of assessment literacy: Contrasts between testers and users. Language Testing, 30(3), 329-344.

McMillan, J. (2013). Why we need research on classroom assessment. In J. H. McMillan (Ed.). The SAGE handbook of research on classroom assessment (pp. 3-16). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Middleton, G. (2017). Assessment Conceptions and Practices among High School Teachers in Government-Funded Schools in Belize. (Unpublished PhD dissertation)

Ndalichako, J. L. (2015). Secondary school teachers' perceptions of assessment. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 5(5), 326.

Niveen R. M. E., Ain, N. A. & Sabariah, M. R. (2017). Malaysian Instructors’ Assessment Beliefs in Tertiary ESL Classrooms. International Journal of Education & Literacy studies, 5(5), 326.

Orafi, S. & Borg, S. (2009). Intentions and realities in implementing communicative curriculum reform. System, 37, 243-253.

Rea-Dickins, P. (2000). Assessment in early years language learning contexts. Language Testing, 17(2), 115-122

Saeed, M., Tahir, H., & Latif, I. (2018). Teachers' Perceptions about the Use of Classroom Assessment Techniques in Elementary and Secondary Schools. Bulletin of Education and Research, 40(1), 115-130.

Scott, S., Webber, C. F., Aitken, N., & Lupart J. (2011). Developing teachers’ knowledge, beliefs, and expertise: Findings from the Alberta Student Assessment Study. Paper presented at the Educational forum.

Shihiba, S. E. S. (2011). An Investigation of Libyan EFL Teachers Conceptions of the

Communicative Learner-Centred Approach in Relation to their Implementation of an English Language Curriculum Innovation in Secondary Schools [Unpublished Doctoral Thesis]. University of Durham.

Shim, K.N. (2009). An investigation into teachers’ perceptions of classroom-based assessment of English as a foreign language in Korean primary education. (Unpublished PhD). Exeter University, Exeter

Shohamy, E. (2001). Democratic assessment as an alternative. Language testing, 18(4), 373-391.

Taggart, L., McMillan, R., & Lawson, A. (2010). Staffs' knowledge and perceptions of working with women with intellectual disabilities and mental health problems. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 54(1), 90-100.

Unal, A., & Unal, Z. (2019). An examination of K-12 Teachers’ Assessment Beliefs and Practices Relation to Years of Teaching Experience Georgia Educational Researcher, 16(1), 4.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2021 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.