The Effect of Interactive Read-alouds on Language Learners’ Development of Writing Skill

Mehrak Rahimi, Fahimeh Farjadnia

Abstract


The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of interactive read-alouds on Iranian English as a foreign language (EFL) learners’ development of writing skill. To attain such a goal, forty-six high-school students were selected and sampled as the experimental (n=23) and control (n=23) groups. The writing section of Key English Test (KET) was used as the pretest to assess participants’ entry-level writing ability. Reading was taught to the experimental group using interactive read-aloud technique while the control group received conventional silent reading instruction through a three-phase cycle of pre-reading, reading, and post-reading. Writing was taught to both groups through a seven-phase process of pre-writing, writing, response-providing, revising, editing, post-writing, and evaluating. After the treatment, the writing section of KET was used as the posttest to explore both groups’ improvement in writing. The data were analyzed by a one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The result revealed a significant difference between the experimental and control groups’ writing ability after controlling for the entry-level writing in favor of the experimental group. The findings of the study underscore the application of integrated skills pedagogical paradigm in language instruction and support the proposition that oracy and literacy are indispensably interrelated and have complementary role in language acquisition.

Keywords


Reading, Aloud, Interactive, Writing, EFL

Full Text:

PDF

References


Amer, A. (1997). The effect of the teacher’s reading aloud on the reading comprehension of EFL students. ELT Journal, 51, pp.43-47.

Barnett, N. A. (1989). More than meets the eye: Foreign language reading. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Regents.

Barrentine, S. (1996). Engaging with reading through interactive read-alouds. Reading Teacher, 50(1), 36-43.

Brown, H. D. (2007). Principles of language learning and teaching. New York: Pearson Education.

Caroll, D. W. (2008). Psychology of language (5th ed). US: Thomson Wadsworth.

Carrell, P. L., and Grabe, W., 2002. Reading. In N. Schmitt (Ed.), An introduction to Applied Linguistics (pp. 233-250). London: Arnold.

Clark, I. L. (1977). Listening and writing. Retrieved from https://wac.colostate.edu/jbw/v3n3/clark.pdf

Cunningworth, A. (1995). Choosing your course book. UK: Macmillan Heinmann.

Day, R. R., & Bamford, J., 1998. Extensive reading in the second language classroom. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Dreyer, C., & Nel, C. (2003). Teaching reading strategies and reading comprehension within a technology-enhanced learning environment. System, 31, 349-365.

Eskey, D. (2005). Reading in a second language. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research on second language teaching and learning (pp.563-580). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Fisher, D., Flood, J., Lapp, D., & Frey, N. (2004). Interactive read-alouds: Is there a common implementation practices. The Reading Teacher, 58(1), 8-17.

Fitzgerald, J., & Shanahan, T. (2000). Reading and writing relations and their development. Educational Psychologist, 35, 39-50.

Giesen, L. (2001). Activities for integrating reading and writing in the language classroom (Unpublished master’s thesis), School for International Training, Brattleboro, Vermont.

Groce, R. D. (2004). An experiential study of elementary teachers with the storytelling process: Interdisciplinary benefits associated with teacher training and classroom integration. Reading Improvement, 41(2), 122.

Hedrick, W.B., & Pearish, A.B. (2003). Good reading instruction is more important than who provides the instruction or where it takes place. In P.A. Mason & J.S. Schumm (Eds.), Promising practices for urban reading instruction (pp. 6-24). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Hirvela, A. (2004). Connecting reading and writing in second language writing instruction. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Howard, D. (1983). Cognitive psychology: Memory, language and thought. NY: Macmillian

Huffaker, D. (2004). Spinning yarns around the digital fire: Storytelling and dialogue among youth on the internet. Information Technology in Childhood Education Annual, 1, 63-75.

Key English Test 5. (2010). Cambridge University Press.

KET content and marking. Retrieved from www.Cambrdige .org

Koon, H. (2008). The reading-writing connection: An investigation of the relationship between reading and writing quality across multiple grades and three writing discourse modes (Unpublished doctoral dissertation), University of North Carolina, US.

Krashen, S. (1984). Writing: Research, theory and applications. Oxford: Pergamon Institute of English.

McDrury, J., & Alterio, M. (2003). Learning through storytelling in higher education: Using reflection and experience to improve learning. London: Kogan Page.

Mostafazadeh, F. (2010). Storytelling: A new clinical education method. Research in Medical Teaching, 2(2), 53-58. (In Persian).

Nation, P. (2008). The four strands. International Journal of Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1(1), 2-13

Nation, P., & Macalister, J. (2010). Language curriculum design. UK: Routledge.

Nuttall, C. (1996). Teaching reading skills in a foreign language. Oxford: Heinemann.

Olejink, S. (1987). Factors affecting the relationship between listening and writing. Reading Horizons, 18(4), 277-281.

Otto, W., & Richard, S. (1970). Administering the school reading program. Boston, Houghton Mofflin.

Ouellette, G. (2006). What's meaning got to do with it: The role of vocabulary word reading and reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(3), 554-566.

Paul, R. (2011). Eight simple rules for talking with preschoolers. Teaching Young Children, 4(2), 13-15.

Peck, R. (2005). The reading-writing connection. In R. Olness (Ed.), Using literature to enhance writing instruction (pp. 1-9). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Peterson, P.W. (2001). Skills and strategies for proficient listening. In Celce-Murcia, M. (Ed.), Teaching English as a

second or foreign language (pp. 87-101). US: Heinle and Heinle.

Powell, K. C., & Kalina, C.J. (2009). Cognitive and social constructivism: Developing tools for an effective classroom. Education, 130(2), 241-250.

Press, M., Henenberg, E., & Getman, D. (2011). Nonfiction read alouds: The why of and how to. The California Reader, 45(1), 36-43.

Rahimi, M., & Miri, S. S. (2015). Technology use and acceptance among pre-service teachers of English as a Foreign Language: The case of a Learning Management System and an educational blog. In J. E. Aitken (Ed.), Cases on communication technology for second language acquisition and cultural learning (pp. 87-107). US: IGI Global.

Rahimi, M., & Soleymani, E. (2015). Digital Storytelling. Tehran: Rash Publication.

Richards, J. C., & Renandya, W. A. (2002). Methodology in language teaching: An anthropology of current practice. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Sadik, A. (2008). Digital storytelling: A meaningful technology-integrated approach for engaged student learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 56, 487-506.

Scharlach, T. D. (2008). START comprehending: Students and teachers actively reading text. The Reading Teacher, 62(1), 20-31.

Shanahan, T. (2006). Relations among oral language, reading, and writing development. In C. A. MacArthur, S. Graham, J. Fitzgerald, (Eds.). Handbook of writing research (pp. 171-183). New York, Guilford.

Spandel, V. (1996). Seeing with new eyes: A guidebook on teaching and assessing beginning writers. Portland: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.

Sticht, T.G. (1972). Learning by listening, language comprehension and the acquisition of knowledge. NY: Freedle.

Stotsky, S. (1984). Research on reading/writing relationships: A synthesis and suggested directions. In M. J. Jensen (Ed.), Composing and comprehending (pp. 7-22). Urbana: National Council of Teachers of English.

Sweller, J., Van Merrienboer, J. J. G., & Paas, F. (2019). Cognitive architecture and instructional design: 20 years later. Educational Psychology Review. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-019-09465-5

Travers, R. R. (1991). The connection between reading and writing: Theoretical foundations and some techniques. Retrieved from https://periodicos.ufsc.br/index.php/fragmentos/article/download/2131/4089

Weigle, S. (2014). Considerations for teaching second language writing. In M. Celce-Murcia, D. Brinton, D., and M. Snow (Ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (pp. 222-237). US: Heinle Cengage Learning.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.8n.3p.5

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2020 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.