Spoken and Written Language as Medium of Communication: A Self-reflection

Ali Alsaawi

Abstract


Speaking and writing are the most important communicative tools among human beings. While speaking is considered to be older and more widely employed, spoken and written language have not been treated equally. Spoken language is seen as the natural productive tool among people that is more common and normal, whereas written language is seen as being intricate and complicated due to its extensive rules. Therefore, spoken language has attracted the attention of researchers to a greater extent compared to written language due to the belief that spoken language has primacy over written language. This paper is an attempt to shed some light on these two communicative elements and the differences between them. A self-reflection, based on Dewey’s (1997) ground-breaking work, is presented in terms of when/where spoken or written language is more appropriate as a medium of communication. It can be argued, therefore, that both speaking and writing are important means of communication without prioritising one over the other; yet, conventions are the real indicators as to which medium of communication is more appropriate.

Keywords


Communication, Language, Medium, Spoken, Written

Full Text:

PDF

References


Akinnaso, F.N. (1982) 'On the differences between spoken and written language', Language and speech, 25(2), pp. 97-125.

Barnitz, J.G. (1981) 'Reading comprehension of anaphoric syntactic structures by Vietnamese bilingual students in high school', Research on reading in secondary schools: A semi-annual report, pp. 69-87.

Blankenship, J. (1962) 'A linguistic analysis of oral and written style', Quarterly Journal of Speech, 48(4), pp. 419-422.

Bloomfield, L. (1933) 'Language. 1933', New York: Holt.

Chafe, W. and Tannen, D. (1987) 'The relation between written and spoken language', Annual Review of Anthropology, 16, pp. 383-407.

Cook, V. (2004) The English writing system. Arnold London.

Dewey, J. (1997). How we think. Courier Corporation.

Drieman, G.H.J. (1962) 'Differences between written and spoken language: An exploratory study', Acta Psychologica, 20, pp. 78-100.

Gibson, J.W., Gruner, C.R., Kibler, R.J. and Kelly, F.J. (1966) 'A quantitative examination of differences and similarities in written and spoken messages', Communications Monographs, 33(4), pp. 444-451.

Gillam, R.B. and Johnston, J.R. (1992) 'Spoken and written language relationships in language/learning-impaired and normally achieving school-age children', Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 35(6), p. 1303.

Halliday, M.A. (1989) 'Spoken and written language'.

Halliday, M.A. (1964) 'The linguistic sciences and language teaching'.

Halliday, M. A. (1992). Spoken and written language.

Horowitz, M.W. and Newman, J.B. (1964) 'Spoken and written expression: An experimental analysis', The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 68(6), p. 640.

Lew, M. D., & Schmidt, H. G. (2011). Self-reflection and academic performance: is there a relationship? Advances in Health Sciences Education, 16(4), 529.

Lull, H.G. (1929) 'The speaking and writing abilities of intermediate grade pupils', Journal of Educational Research, 20(1), pp. 73-77.

Malmquist, E. (1969) Proceedings of the Second World Congress on Reading. RC Staiger and O. Andersen, eds. International Reading Association.

Mann, K., Gordon, J., & MacLeod, A. (2009). Reflection and reflective practice in health professions education: a systematic review. Advances in health sciences education, 14(4), 595.

Miller, J., & Fernandez-Vest, M. J. (2006). Spoken and written language. Pragmatic organization of discourse in the languages of Europe, 9-64.

Olson, D.R. (1977) 'From utterance to text: The bias of language in speech and writing', Harvard educational review, 47(3), pp. 257-281.

Popper, K.R. (1972) Objective knowledge. Clarendon Press Oxford.

Roberts, C., & Street, B. (2017). Spoken and written language. The handbook of sociolinguistics, 168-186.

Smith, F. (1973) 'Psycholinguistics and reading'. London, Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Smith, F. (2012). Spoken and written language. In Understanding Reading (pp. 46-69). Routledge.

Stubbs, M. (1980) Language and Literacy: The Sociolinguistics of Reading and Writing. ERIC.

Tannen, D. (1982) 'Oral and literate strategies in spoken and written narratives', Language, pp. 1-21.

Wiese, R. (2016). Prosodic parallelism—comparing spoken and written language. Frontiers in psychology, 7, 1598.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.8n.2p.194

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2019 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.