Terminology Evolution and Translation: Specificity of Referent & User’s Epistemic Continuum Exemplified in Islamic Terms

Omar A. S. Al-Shabab, Farida H. Baka

Abstract


In the dynamics of environmental context, the referent of a linguistic sign changes, but the sign persists as a verbal symbol. Since a technical term strictly evokes one referent, it may lack in specificity due to the ever-changing reality, resulting in homonymy, overlap, and a semantic continuum based on designating by necessity. In addition to the elements of reference theory, the criteria for technical terms postulate the user, whose authority and responsibility are necessary for the term to function as a specific designator. The centrality of the user, translator or otherwise, has hermeneutic and linguistic implications for the evolution of terminology, because it stipulates that terminological meaning and usage are dependent on the user’s conscious knowledge, a condition that leads to the recognition of a user epistemic continuum parallel to the semantic necessity continuum. Ideally, a term should be universally specific in reference, and its user should be epistemologically empowered and ethically responsible. 


Keywords


Terminology, technical terms, Translation, Islamic terminology, semantic continuum

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abu-Saleh, E. S. (2014). Medical Terminology. Amman, Dar Majdalawi Publishing.

Ali, A. Y. (1977/1934). The Holy Quran: Translation and Commentary. The United States, American Trust Publishers for the Muslim Students’ Association.

Al-Jabri, M. A. [in Arabic] (1993). bunyat al،aql al،arabi (The Structure of Arabic Mind). Lebanon, Arabic Cultural Centre.

Al-Gabarti, A. (2009). ՝ajāˈib al-āthār fi altrājem walˈakhbār (The Wonders of Remains in Biographies and Narrations). Cairo, Dar AL-kutub wa AL-Wathāˈiq Al-Qawmiyya.

Al-Khuri, S. (1987). ta՝rīb atta՝līm aTTubī wa aSSaydalānī fī all՝ālam ll՝arabī (The Arabization of Medical and Pharmacological Instruction in the Arab World). Beirut, Dar Al-Rāˈid Al-՝arabī.

Al-Mubarak, M. (1985). Allugatu alarabiya fī alta،leem al'alī wa albaHth al،ilmī (The Arabic Language in Higher Education and Academic Research). Damascus, Dar Al-Nafais.

Al-Sayadi, M. M. (1982). alta՝rīb wadawrahu fī tad՝īm alwujūd al՝arabī wa alwaHda al՝arabiyya (Arabization and its Role in Supporting Arab Existence and Arab Unity). Beirut, Arab Unity Studies Center.

Al-Safi, O. A. A. [in Arabic] (1991). alqur'ān alkarīm: bid،iyatu tarjamati 'alfāzihi wa ma،ānīh wa tafsīreh …(The Holy Quran: The Heresy of Translating its Vocabulary, its Meanings and its interpretations ….). Beirut, Damascus and Amman, Islamic Office.

Author (forthcoming) Linguistic Interpretation: The Interpretive Frame and First Person Domain. Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia, Translation, Authorship and Publication Center, King Faisal University Press.

Author (2000). Aspects of the Language of Translation in the Translations of the Quran into European Languages, Damascus University Journal. Syria, Vol. 16, No 1, pp. 19-49.

Author (2001). The Place of Marracci's Latin Translation of The Holy Quran: A Linguistic Approach, Journal King Saud University, Languages and Translation. 13, pp. 57-74.

Author (2003a). The Evolution of Translation Culture: Translating the Holy Quran into French, Journal of King Saud University, Languages & Translation. 15, pp. 21-48.

Author [in Arabic] (2003b). fuSūl fī alta’wīl wa lughatu altarjama (Episodes in Interpretation and the Language of Translation (Necessity, Convention, and Relative Stability in the Translation of Quranic Names into European Languages), Author and Al-Naser, S. J., Damascus, Syria: Dar Al-Hasad, pp.119-177.

Author (2008). From Necessity to Infinity: Interpretation in Language and Translation. London, Janus.

Author (2010). The Role of Micro Interpretation and Semantic Primitives in Translational Commensurability, KFU Scientific Journal, Vol. 11, 1, pp. 201-234.

Author (2012a). First Person Domain: Threshold Mental Lexicon and Arab Learners of English, Proceedings of the Second Symposium on English Language Teaching in KSA: Realities and Challenges: Research Papers. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 9-11 April, 2012, pp. 141-208.

Author (2012b). Textual Source and Assertion: Sale's Translation of the Holy Quran, Journal of King Suad University: Languages and Translation, 24, pp. 1-21.

Badawi, A. (No Date). Dirāsāt wa nuSūS fii alfalsafa ՝inda al՝arab (Studies and Texts on Arabic Philosophy and Science). Lebanon, Arabic Studies and Publications.

Davidson, D. (2006 originally 1984). First Person Authority, in Davidson, D. 2006: The Essential Davidson. Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 242-250.

De Saussure, F. (2011, originally in French 1916). Course in General Linguistics. New York, Colombia University Press.

Duan, M. (2012). On the Arbitrary Nature of Linguistic Sing, Theory and Practice in Language Studies. Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 54-59.

Fatma-Zaida (1861). L’Alkoran: Le Livre par Excellence, Lisbonne, Imprimerie de la Société Typographique Franco-Portugaise.

Frege, G. (1993 originally 1892). ‘On Sense and Reference’, in A. W. Moore (ed.) (1993): Meaning and Reference. Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 23–42.

Grice, H. P. (1967). Logic and Conversation, in Cole, P. and Morgan, J. L. (eds.): Syntax and Semantics: Vol. 3: Speech Acts. New York, Academic Press.

Guarino, N. (1992). Concepts, Attributes, and Arbitrary Relations: Some Linguistic and Ontological Criteria for Structuring Knowledge Bases, Data and Knowledge Engineering. 8 Issue 3, pp. 249-261. From http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=144362

Kolb, D. (1984). Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Kripke, S. A. (1972). Naming and Necessity. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press.

Kuhn, T. (1982). Commensurability, Comparability, Communicability, PSA: Proceeding of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association. 2, PP. 669-688.

Kuhn, T. (1962). The Structure of Scientific Evolutions. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press.

Idara Dawat (1997). Qadiani Changes to the Translation of the Holy Quran. From http://irshad.org/ exposed/translation.php.

Irving, T. B., Ahmed, K. & Ahsan, M. M. (1979). The Qur’an: Basic Teaching. London, The Islamic Foundation.

Irving, T. B. (1992). The Noble Qur’an: Arabic Text and English Translation. Brattleboro, Vermont USA, Amana Books.

Lowe, I (2009). A Question of Terminology. From http://www.scientificlanguage.com/esp/terminology.pdf

Lyons, J. (1968). Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Mawada, M. (1986). Harakat altarjama fī tūnis waˈabraz maZāhirahā fī alˈadab (Translation Movement in Tunisia and its Main Characteristic in Literature). Tripoli (Libya) and Tunis (Tunisia), Al-Dar Al՝arabiyya lilkitāb,

Miller, J. W. (1980). The Definition of the Thing: With Some Notes on Language. New York and London, W. W. Norton and Company.

Numan A. (1981). Al-ta՝rīb bayna al-mabdaˈ wa altaTbīq (Arabization Between Principles and Application). Algiers, The National Company for Publication and Distribution.

Plato (Allan Bloom Translator) (1988). The Republic of Plato. USA, BasicBooks, HaperCollins Publishers. From http://www.inp.uw.edu.pl/mdsie/Political_Thought/Plato-Republic.pdf.

Pym, A. (1994). Twelfth-Century Toledo and Strategies of Literalist Trojan Horse, Target. The Netherlands, 6, 1, pp. 43-66.

Pym, A. (1995). Translatio Disputatio, and the First Latin Qur’an. From http://usuaris.tinet.cat/apym/on-line/translation/1995_Qur'an_preprint.pdf

Searle, J. (1969). Speech Acts. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Sperber, D. & Wilson, D. (1995). Relevance: Communication and Cognition. NJ (USA), Wiley-Blackwell.

Richards, I. A., & Ogden, C. K. (1989/1923). The Meaning of Meaning. USA, Harcourt Jovanovich, Inc.

Rosenberge, J. F. (1994). Beyond Formalism: Naming and Necessity for Human Beings. Philadelphia, Temple University Press.

Ross, E. B. (1979). Introduction, in Sale, in Sale, G. (translator): The Korân: Translated into English from The Original Arabic. London, Frederick Warne.

Russell, B. (1962). ‘On denoting’, Mind. 14, pp. 479–93.

Russell, B. (1993) (originally 1919). ‘Descriptions’, in A. W. Moore (Ed.) (1993): Meaning and Reference. Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 46–55.

Saleh, M. I. (2011). Dictionary of Islamic Words and Expressions. Al-Riyadh, Darussalam.

Searle, J. R. (1975). Indirect Speech Acts, in Cole, P. and Morgan, J. L. (eds.): Syntax and Semantics. Vol. 3, pp. 59–82.

Stanford Encycllopedia of Philosophy (2006). Rigid Designators. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ rigid-designators/.

Tajer, J. (1945). Harakat altarjama bimaSr khilāl alqarn altāsi՝ ՝ashar (Translation Movement in Egypt in the Nineteenth Century). Cairo, Dar Alma՝ārif.

Technical Terms. From http://techterms.com/

Wellisch, H. H. (1981). Ebla: The World Oldest Library. The Journal of Library History. Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 488-500. Retrieved from http://rbedrosian.com/Libraries/Libraries_Ebla.pdf , http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/ policies/terms.jsp.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.5n.1p.94

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2020 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.