Embodiment: A Brief Overview

Mansoor Fahim, Samaneh Eslamdoost

Abstract


One of the bewildering conceptions within the realm of cognitive science has been the perception of meaning and understanding, which has inadequately been approached by previous theories of cognition. Recently, there have been radical shifts in developments in cognitive science toward the theory of Embodiment. On the word of this newfangled standpoint, it is widely accepted that body plays a central role in meaning making. In this novel approach, making linguistic meanings which is closely related to our actions is precisely the point.  Several investigations have endeavored to provide the estimates of embodiment by examining the effect of body movements on cognition. A considerable amount of literature has proved that the cognitive capacities are constructed and dependent on the bodily actions through the interaction with the external world. 

 


Keywords


Embodiment, Embodied Cognition, Meaning Perception

Full Text:

PDF

References


Anderson, M. L. (2003). Embodied cognition: A field guide. Artificial Intelligence, 149, 91–130.

Barsalou, L. W. (1999). Perceptual symbol systems. Behavior and Brain Sciences, 22, 577–660.

Chomsky, N. (1959).Verbal behavior. Language, 35, 26–58.

Clark, A. (2006). Language, embodiment, and the cognitive niche. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10(8), 370-374.

Damasio, A. (2000). The feeling of what happens: body and emotion in the making of consciousness. London: William Heinemann.

Elman, J., Bates, E., Johnson, M., Karmiloff-Smith, A., Parisi, D., & Plunkett, K. (1996). Rethinking Innateness: A connectionist perspective on development. Cambridge: MIT Press/Bradford Books.

Gibbs, R. W., Jr. (2003). Embodied experience and linguistic meaning. Brain and Language, 84, 1-15.

Gibson, J.J. (1966). The senses considered as perceptual systems. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Gibson, J. J. (1979). The ecological approach to visual perception. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.

Glenberg, A. M. (1997). What memory is for. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 20, 1–55.

Glenberg, A. M., & Kaschak, M. P. (2002). Grounding language in action. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9, 558-565.

Glenberg, A.M., & Kaschak, M.P. (2003). The body’s contribution to language. The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 43, 93-126.

Glenberg, A. M., & Kaschak, M. P. (2004). Language is grounded in action. In L. Carlson & E. van der Zee (Eds.), Functional features in language and space: Insights from perception, categorization, and development (pp. 11-24). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Glenberg, A. M., & Robertson, D. A. (2000). Symbol grounding and meaning: A comparison of high-dimensional and embodied theories of meaning. Journal of Memory and Language, 43, 379-401.

Harnad, S. (1990). The symbol grounding problem. Physica, D, 42: 335-346.

Kaschak, M. P., & Glenberg, A. M. (2000). Constructing meaning: The role of affordances and grammatical constructions in sentence comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language, 43, 508-529.

Kerkhofs, R., & Haselager, W.F.G. (2006). The embodiment of meaning. Manuscrito, 29(2), 753-764.

Louwerse, M. M., & Jeuniaux, P. (2008). Language comprehension is both embodied and symbolic. In M. de Vega, A. Glenberg, & A. C. Graesser (Eds.), Symbols, embodiment, and meaning (pp. 309–326). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Louwerse, M. M. & Jeuniaux, P. (2010). The linguistic and embodied nature of conceptual processing. Cognition, 114, 96–104.

Pecher, D., & Zwaan, R. A. (Eds.). (2005). Grounding cognition: The role of perception and action in memory, language, and thinking. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Plunkett, K., & Sinha, C. (1992). Connectionism and developmental theory. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 10, 209-254.

Semin, G. R., & Smith, E. R. (Eds.). (2008). Embodied grounding: Social, cognitive, affective, and neuroscientific approaches. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Shapiro, L. (2011). Embodied cognition. NewYork: Routledge Press.

Sinha, C., & López, K.J. (2000). Language, culture and the embodiment of spatial Cognition. Cognitive Linguistics, 11, 17-41.

Smith, L., & Gasser, M. (2005). The development of embodied cognition: Six lessons from babies. Artificial Life, 11, 13–29.

Skinner, B.F. (1957). Verbal Behavior. NewYork: Appleton-Century- Crofts.

Stanfield, R. A., & Zwaan, R. A. (2001). The effect of implied orientation derived from verbal context on picture recognition. Psychological Science, 13, 153-156.

Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in Society: the development of higher psychological processes. In C. Michael, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner & E. Souberman (Eds.). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Vygotsky, L. (1986). Thought and language. In A. Kozulin (Ed.). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Wilson, M. (2002). Six views of embodied cognition. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9 (4), 625-636.

Wilson, A. D., & Golonka, S. (2013). Embodied cognition is not what you think it is. Frontiers in Psychology, 4(58), 1-13.

Zwaan, R. A. (2004). The immersed experience: Toward an embodied theory of language comprehension. In B. H. Ross (Ed.), The psychology of language and motivation (Vol. 44). New York: Academic Press.

Zwaan, R. A., Madden, C. J., Yaxley, R. H., & Aveyard, M. E. (2004). Moving words: Dynamic representations in language comprehension. Cognitive Science, 28, 611-619.

Zwaan, R. A., Stanfield, R. A., & Yaxley, R. H. (2002). Language comprehenders mentally represent the shapes of objects. Psychological Science, 13, 168-171.

Zwaan, R. A., & Yaxley, R. H. (2003). Spatial iconicity affects semantic relatedness judgments. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 10, 954–958.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.4n.1p.73

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2021 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.