Evaluation of Concordance between Degenerative Changes on Neck X-Ray and Symptomatic Cervical Disc Herniation

Amir Abbas Ghasemi, Saber Ramezanpour

Abstract


Objectives: Radiographic assessment of cervical spine can help find the etiology of neck symptoms, however association between these findings is debatable. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between degenerative changes of the cervical spine and symptomatic cervical disc herniation. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional retrospective study included 160 patients who underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion between February 2012 and June 2017 for cervical disc herniation. Demographic data, patients’ symptoms and radiographic findings and indices were evaluated. The Chi-Square (X2) and one-way ANOVA were used to compare the observed data. Results: A total of 160 patients were studied. Among them, 83 (52%) were male and 77(48%) were female. The patients were classified into four groups on the basis of imaging findings: 89(55.6%) with degenerative changes and symptomatic disc herniation at the same level (group 1), 40(25%) with degenerative changes at a level adjacent to symptomatic level (group 2), 23(14.3%) with symptomatic herniation both at the degenerated level and at level immediately adjacent to it (group 3), and 8(5%) symptomatic herniation and degenerative changes at non-adjacent levels (group 4). There were no significant differences among the four groups from the viewpoint of gender, age, symptoms, smoking and sedentary life style. The study also showed no significant differences between groups with respect to Ishihara index, disc height and posterior osteophyte length. Conclusion: Degenerative changes visible on neck X-ray can be useful clues to the symptomatic disc herniation, but disc herniation may also develop at adjacent and non-adjacent levels.

Keywords


Cervical Spine, Degenerative Changes, Disc Herniation

Full Text:

PDF

References


Brinjikji W, Luetmer PH, Comstock B, Bresnahan BW, Chen LE,et al. Systematic Literature Review of Imaging Features of Spinal Degeneration in Asymptomatic Populations. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2015 Apr; 36(4): 811–816.

Peng B, DePalma MJ. Cervical disc degeneration and neck pain. J Pain Res. 2018; 11: 2853–2857

Iyer S, Kim HJ. Cervical radiculopathy. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2016 Sep; 9(3): 272–280

Frost BA, Camarero-Espinosa S, Foster EJ. Materials for the Spine: Anatomy, Problems, and Solutions. Materials (Basel). 2019 Jan; 12(2): 253

Agur A.M.R., Dalley A.F. Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy. 12th ed. Lipincott Williams & Wilkins; Pennsylvania, PA, USA: 2009. p. 841

Kushchayev S, Glushko T, Jarraya M, Schuleri KH, Preul MC ,et al. ABCs of the degenerative spine. Insights Imaging. 2018 Apr; 9(2): 253–274

Bogduk N. Degenerative joint disease of the spine. Radiol Clin N Am. 2012;50(4):613–628

Choi YS. Pathophysiology of Degenerative Disc Disease. Asian Spine J. 2009 Jun; 3(1): 39–44

Buckwalter JA, Boden SD, Erye DR, et al. Intervertebral disc aging, degeneration, and, herniation. In: Buckwalter JA, Einhorn TA, Simon SR, editors. Orthopaedic basic science. 2nd ed. Rosement: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; 2000. pp. 557–566

Inoue N, Espinoza Orias AA. Biomechanics of intervertebral disk degeneration. Orthop Clin North Am. 2011;42(4):487–499.

Gellhorn AC, Katz JN, Suri P. Osteoarthritis of the spine: the facet joints. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2013 Apr; 9(4): 216–224.

Kim CH, Hwang HM,Park JS,Han S, Park D. Predictability of severity of disc degeneration and disc protrusion using horizontal displacement of cervical dynamic radiographs. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Jun; 97(25): e11098

Bednar DA, Toorani B, Denkers M, Abdelbary H. Assessment of stability of the cervical spine in blunt trauma patients: review of the literature, with presentation and preliminary results of a modified traction test protocol. Can J Surg. 2004 Oct; 47(5): 338–342.

Moon MS, Yoon MG, Park BK, Park MS. Age-Related Incidence of Cervical Spondylosis in Residents of Jeju Island. Asian Spine J. 2016 Oct; 10(5): 857–868.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.abcmed.v.8n.2p.22

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2020 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine