EST Reading Curriculum & Instruction: An Alignment Analysis

Lubna Ali Mohammed, Sidek H.M


In order for a curriculum to achieve its goals, it is imperative that the curriculum is coherent at all levels. In order to determine the coherency of a curriculum, the alignment of its theoretical underpinning and the label of a curriculum is one of the aspects that can be examined. The purpose of the current study was to examine if the theoretical grounding of the Yemeni EST senior secondary curriculum is in alignment with its communicative-based curriculum label. In line with its label, the reading curriculum embedded in the EST curriculum should be developed and designed based on the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), which should be reflected in the EST reading instructional practice. In analysing the alignment of the communicative language teaching approach in the EST senior secondary school reading curriculum, the primary focus of the analysis was on the major SLA theories and L2 reading theories and the related instructional approaches. The data for this study were collected via an ESP textbook review as well as from the observation of the EST reading classroom instruction. The findings show that the EST senior secondary reading curriculum was not developed based on the socio-cognitive and socio-cultural theories which are the grounding principles of the communicative approach. Instead, the findings show that the EST senior secondary reading curriculum was primarily developed based on the cognitive information processing theory, in which teaching instruction reflects the student as an individual information processor and the focus on teaching vocabulary and grammatical rules using reading texts in non-communicative manner.

Keywords: Communicative Approach, SLA Theories, L2 Reading Theories

Full Text:



Aimin, L. (2013). The study of second language acquisition under socio-cultural theory. American Journal of Educational Research, 1(5).

Al-Ahdal, A. A. M. H. (2010). ELT in Yemen and India - The need for remedial measures. Language in India, 10.

Al-Fatimi, Y. S. (2009). Investigating the Problems Face Teaching Translation Subjects at the Colleges of Education,

Aden University. Unpublished master thesis, Aden University, Yemen.

Al-Mansoori, A. (2008). Reasons behind poor achievements in English by the students of scientific departments at Aden college of Education from the view point of teachers and students. Unpublished master thesis in Education, Aden University, Yemen.

Al-Refaai, O. Y. (2001). A study of the Reasons of Students’ low Academic Achievement in English Language at Aden

College of Education. Aden University, Yemen. Magazine of Aden College of Education, 3.

Alsamadani, H. A. (2011). The effects of the 3-2-1 reading strategy on EFL reading comprehension. English Language

Teaching, 4.

Al-Tamimi, N. O. M. (2006). The effect of direct reading strategy instruction on students' reading comprehension,

metacognitive strategy, and reading attitudes among eleventh grade students in Yemen. . Doctor of Philosophy,

University Sains Malaysia, Malaysia. Retrieved from

Ali, S. E. (2007). Problems and Prospects of English. South Asian Language Review, XVII(2), 39-48.

Astika, G. (2004). A Task-based Approach to Reading English for Specialized Purposes. EA Journal, 22.

Basturkman, H. (1999). A content analysis of ELT textbook blurbs: Reflections of theory-in-use. RELC Journal, 301(1), 18-38.

Bateman, D., aylor, S., Janik, E., & Logan, A. (2009). Curriculum coherence and student success. Pédagogie collégiale,

(5), 8-18.

Biggs, J. (1999). Teaching for quality learning at university. Society for Research into Higher Education / Open University Press.

Canale, M., & Swain, M. (1980). Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics, 1(1), 1-47.

Celce-Murcia, M. (1999). Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language (2nd Ed.). Boston, Massachusetts:

Heinle & Heinle Publishers.

Dumessa, M. (2002). An investigation of English language teachers' reading lesson presentation in terms of the new course book for grade nine in some selected government secondary schools in Addis Ababa. Master of Arts, Addis

Ababa University, Addis Ababa. Retrieved

eTA (Producer). (2008). Evaluation Briefs: Data collection methods for program evaluation:Observation 16. Retrieved from

Griffee, D. T. (2012). An introduction to second language research methods: Design and data Retrieved from

Gudepu, M. D. (2013). Applications of Communicative Language Teaching Techniques in Reading Classes: A Special Focus on Junior Colleges in Telangana Region (India). World Journal of English Language 3(2).

Hansen, R. E. (1995). Five principles for guiding curriculum development practice: The case of technological teacher

education. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 32(2), 30-50. Hassen, M. M. N. (2009). A critical study of crescent

English course for secondary stage in Yemen. Doctor of Philosophy University of Pune, India.

Heilmann, G., & Korte, W. B. (2010). The Role of Creativity and Innovation in School Curricula in the EU27- A content analysis of curricula documents. European Commission: Institute for Prospective Technological Studies. JRC Technical Notes.

Hymes, D. H. (1972). On Communicative Competence. In J. B. Pride & J. Holmes (Eds.), Sociolinguistics. Selected Readings: Harmondsworth: Penguin, pp. 269-293.(Part 2).

Larsen-Freeman, D., & Long, M. A. i. t. s. l. a. r. (1991). An introduction to second language acquisition research. England: Longman.

Lawrence, W. P. W. (2011). Textbook evaluation: A framework for evaluating the fitness of the Hong Kong new

secondary school (NSS) curriculum. Master of Arts, City University of HongKong, Hong Kong. Retrieved from:

Lee, C. (2009). Studies on Reading Strategies and Teaching Literary Works: Interactive Model in Reader’s Theater.

Lie, A. (2001). Multicultural issues in the 1994 English curriculum in Indonesian senior high schools. In W. Renandya & N. Sunga (Eds.), Language curriculum and instruction in multicultural societies. Singapore: SEAMEO RELC,

Anthology 42.

Lie, A. (2007). Education Policy and EFL curriculum in Indonesia: between the commitment to competence and the quest for higher test scores. TEFLIN Journal, 18(1).

Matsuoka, R., & Evans, D. R. (2004). Socio-cognitive approach in second language acquisition research.

National College ofNursing, Japan, 3(1).

Mcmahon, T., & Thakore , H. (2006). Achieving constructive alignment: Putting outcomes first. The Quality of Higher Education(3).

Mitchell, R., & Myles, F. (1998). Second language learning theories. London:Arnold.

Mutebi, P. M.-. (1996). An Analysis of the Primary Education Curriculum in Uganda Including a Framework for a Primary Education Curriculum Renewal: UNESCO.

Na'ama, A. (2011). An analysis of errors made by Yemeni university students in the English consonant-clusters system.

Damascus University Journal, 27.

Nakatsugawa, M. (2009). Bridging the Gap: A Communicative Grammar-Translation Approach. Barrel - Otaru

University of Commerce Academic Collections Retrieved from

O’Neil, T., Snow, P., & Peacock, R. (1999). English Course for Yemen: Teacher’s Book 6: Grant Publishing Limited for the Ministry of Education. Republic of Yemen.

Oyetunji, C. O. (2011). The effect of reading strategy instruction on L2 teacher trainees’ performance. Master of Arts, University of south Africa. Retrieved from

Ozsevik, Z. (2010). The Use of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT): Turkish EFL Teachers’ Perceived

Difficulties in Implementing CLT in Turkey. Master of Arts, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Retrieved from

Pugazhenthi, V., & Phil, M. (2012). The Role of English Teacher in Language Learning, Teaching and Assessment. Language in India, 12.

Rababah, G. (2005). Communication problems facing arab learners of English. Journal of Language and Learning, 3.

Rahman, M. H. (2007). An evaluation of the teaching of reading skills of English in Bangladesh. Master in English,

University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Retreived from:

Redondo, M. (1997). Reading models in foreign language teaching. Revista Alicantina de Estudios Ingleses, 10, 139-161.

Richards, J., & Rodgers, T. (2001). Approaches and methods in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

The Republic of Yemen, the Parliament house, General Act for Education (45). (1992, Feb.1993). Magazine of Democracy, p. 26.

Savignon, S. J. (2002). Communicative Language Teaching: Linguistic Theory and Classroom Practice. In S. J. Savignon. (Ed.), Interpreting communicative language teaching (pp. 1-27). New Haven & London: Yale University Press.

Sidek, H. M. (2010). An analysis of the EFL secondary reading curriculum in Malaysia: approaches to reading and preparation for higher education. Doctor of Philosophy, University of Pittsburgh.

Surgenor, P. (2010). Teaching toolkit: Planning a teaching session. From UCD teaching and learning/Resources. Retrieved from:

UNESCO. (2011). World Data on Education 2010 / 2011. International Bureau of Education Retrieved from:

Williams, J. (1995). Focus on form on communicative language teaching: Research findings and the classroom teacher. TESOL Journal, 4(4), 12-16.

Xiohong, Z. (2009). A Great Leap Forward: EFL curriculum, globalization and reconstructionism - A case study in North East China. Doctor of Philosophy, University of Ballarat, Australia. Retrieved from: mpra.ub.uni

Zohrabi, M. (2013). Mixed Method Research: Instruments, Validity, Reliability and Reporting Findings. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 3(2), 254-262.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2010-2022 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

Advances in Language and Literary Studies

You may require to add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.