Discrimination in “the City”: Race, Class, and Gender in Toni Morrison’s Jazz

Golam Rabbani

Abstract


Toni Morrison, the African American Nobel laureate author, explores the realities where African American women face multiple discriminations in her novel Jazz (1992). This article, following the qualitative method on the bibliographic study, examines the discriminations entailing race, class, and gender and presents Harlem as a discriminatory space in the novel. Jazz narrates the struggles of African American women who settled in Harlem in the early twentieth-century. Haunted by the memories of slavery, the female African American characters in the novel find themselves subjugated in the society dominated by white Americans and also experience oppression within their black community. Harlem, denoted as “the City” in the novel, identifies itself as the relational space where black women experience the intersecting subjugation and alienation from their race, class, and gender positions.

Keywords


Racial Discrimination, Class Conflict, Gender Discrimination, Critical Race Study, Toni Morrison, Jazz

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bouson, J. Brooks. Quite As It’s Kept: Shame Trauma and Rape in the Novels of Toni Morrison. New York: State University of New York Press, 2000. Print.

Harding, Wendy, and Jacky Martin. A World of Difference: An Intercultural Study of Toni Morrison’s Novels. London: Greenwood Press, 1994. Print.

Heinert, Jennifer Lee Jordan. Narrative Conventions and Race in the Novels of Toni Morrison. New York, NY: Routledge, 2009. Print.

Heinze, Denise. The Dilemma of “Double Consciousness”: Toni Morrison’s Novels. Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1993. Print.

Kubitschek, Missy Dehn. Toni Morrison: A critical Companion. London: Greenwood Press, 1998. Print.

Loris, Michelle C. “Self and Mutuality: Romantic Love, Desire, Race, and Gender in Toni Morrison’s Jazz.” Sacred Heart University Review, vol. 14, no.1, 1994, pp. 53-62.

Matus, Jill. Toni Morrison. Manchester: University Press, 1998. Print.

McKee, Patricia. Producing American Races: Henry James, William Faulkner, Toni Morrison. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 1999. Print.

Michlin, Monica, and Jean-Paul Rocchi. “Introduction: Theorizing for Change: Intersections, Transdisciplinarity, and Black Lived Experience.” Eds. Monica Michlin and Jean-Paul Rocchi. Black Intersectionalities: A Critique for the 21st Century. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2013. Print. 1-20.

Morrison, Toni. Jazz. London: Vintage, 1992. Print.

Morrison, Toni. Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination. London: Picador, 1992. Print.

Nowlin, Michael. “Toni Morrison’s Jazz and the Racial Dreams of the American Writer.” American Literature, vol. 71, no. 1, 1999, pp. 151-174.

Peach, Linden. Toni Morrison. London: Macmillan Press, 1996. Print.

Raynaud, Claudine. “Risking Sensuality: Toni Morrison’s Eroctics of Writing.” Black Intersectionalities: A Critique for the 21st Century. Eds. Monica Michlin and Jean-Paul Rocchi. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2013. Print. 128-144.

Russell, Kathy, Midge Wilson, and Ronald Hall. The Color Complex: The Politics of Skin Color Among African Americans. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1992. Print.

Taylor, Yvette, Sally Hines, and Mark E. Casey. Theorizing Intersectionality and Sexuality. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. Print.

Weston, Kath. “Me, Myself, and I.” Theorizing Intersectionality and Sexuality. Eds. Yvette Taylor, Sally Hines, and Mark E. Casey. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. Print. 15-36.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.alls.v.10n.5p.128

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2010-2020 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

Advances in Language and Literary Studies

You may require to add the 'aiac.org.au' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.