The Impact of Problem-Based Learning on Iranian EFL Learners’ Speaking Proficiency

Loghman Ansarian, Ali Akbar Adlipour, Mehrnoush Akhavan Saber, Elmira Shafiei

Abstract


The study investigated the effect of problem-based learning through cognition-based tasks on speaking proficiency of Iranian intermediate EFL learners in comparison to the effect of objective-based tasks. To this end, a true experimental research design was employed. Ninety five (N=95) language learners studying at a language institute in the city of Esfahan, Iran were given an IELTS listening and speaking test as the proficiency test and 75 learners were selected. In the next phase of the study, a second IELTS speaking test was administered as the homogeneity test and the pre-test to seventy five (N=75) learners chosen from the population and forty-eight (N=48) homogeneous intermediate learners were selected for the study (i.e., 24 learners in control group and 24 in experimental one). The results of an independent-sample t-test gained from the study proved that not only does implementation of problem-based learning through cognition-based tasks significantly increased intermediate participants’ speaking proficiency, but also it had more positive effect in comparison to objective-based tasks on participants’ speaking proficiency. Therefore, it is suggested that problem-based learning ought to be taken into account by educational scholars, those in charge of syllabus, material producers, language teachers and language learners.

Keywords: Cognition-Based Tasks, Objective-Based Tasks, EFL Learners, Speaking Proficiency, Problem-Based Learning


Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdullah & Hayati, M. (1998). Problem-based learning in language education: a constructivist model. Eric publications.

Abrandt Dahlgren, M., & Dahlgren, L. O. (2002). Portraits of PBL: Students’ experiences of the characteristics of problem-based learning in physiotherapy, computer engineering, and psychology. Instr. Sci. 30, 111–127.

Albanese, M. A., & Mitchell, S. (1993). Problem-based learning: A review of literature on its outcomes and implementation issues. Acad. Med. 68, 52–81.

Anita, E., Woolfolk, P.H., & Winne Nancy, E.P. (2011) Educational psychology. Rahnama Press. p.197

Barrows, H. S. (2000). Problem-based learning applied to medical education, Southern Illinois University Press, Springfield.

Barrows, H., & Kelson, A. C. (1995). Problem-based learning in secondary education and the problem-based learning institute (Monograph 1), Problem-Based Learning Institute, Springfield, IL.

Barrows, H. S., & Tamblyn, R. (1980). Problem-based learning: An approach to medical education, Springer, New York.

Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1989). Intentional learning as a goal of instruction. In Resnick, L.B. (ed.), Knowing, Learning, and Instruction: Essays in Honor of Robert Glaser, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 361–392.

Blumberg, P., & Michael, J. A. (1992). Development of self-directed learning behaviors in a partially teacher-directed problem-based learning curriculum. Teach. Learn. Med. 4, 3–8.

Blumenfeld, P. C., Marx, R.W., Soloway, E., & Krajcik, J. S. (1996). Learning with peers: From small group cooperation to collaborative communities. Educ. Res. 25(8), 37–40.

Boud, D., & Feletti, G. (1991). The Challenge of Problem Based Learning, St. Martin’s Press, New York.

Bransford, J. D., & McCarrell, N. S. (1977). A sketch of a cognitive approach to comprehension: Some thoughts about understanding what it means to comprehend. In Johnson-Laird,P. N., and Wason, P. C. (eds.), Thinking: Readings in Cognitive Science, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 377–399.

Bransford, J. D., Vye, N., Kinzer, C.,& Risko, R. (1990). Teaching thinking and content knowledge: Toward an integrated approach. In Jones, B. F., and Idol, L. (eds.), Dimensions of Thinking and Cognitive Instruction, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 381–413.

Bridges, E. M. (1992). Problem-based learning for administrators, ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

Brown, A. L. (1995). The advancement of learning. Educ. Res. 23(8), 4–12.

Chi, M. T. H., Bassok, M., Lewis, M.W., Reimann, P., & Glaser, R. (1989). Self-explanations: How students study and use examples in learning to solve problems. Cogn. Sci. 13, 145–182.

Collins, A., Brown, J. S., & Newman, S. E. (1989). Cognitive apprenticeship: Teaching the crafts of reading, writing, and mathematics. In Resnick, L. B. (ed.), Knowing, Learning, and Instruction: Essays in Honor of Robert Glaser, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 453–494.

Derry, S. J., Levin, J. R., Osana, H. P., Jones, M. S., & Peterson, M. (2000). Fostering students’ statistical and scientific thinking: Lessons learned from an innovative college course. Am. Educ. Res. J. 37, 747–773.

Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and Education, Macmillan, New York.

Duch, B. J., Groh, S. E., & Allen,D. E. (2001). The Power of Problem-Based Learning, Stylus, Steerling, VA.

Ertmer, P., Newby, T. J., & MacDougall, M. (1996). Students’ responses and approaches to case-based instruction: The role of reflective self-regulation. Am. Educ. Res. J. ,33, 719–752.

Evensen, D. (2000). Observing self-directed learners in a problem-based learning context: Two case studies. In Evensen, D., and Hmelo, C. E. (eds.), Problem-Based Learning: A Research Perspective on Learning Interactions, Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, 263–298.

Evensen, D. H., Salisbury-Glennon, J.,& Glenn, J. (2001). A qualitative study of 6 medical students in a problem-based curriculum: Towards a situated model of self-regulation. J. Educ. Psychol ,93, 659–676.

Gallagher, S. A., Stepien,W. J., & Rosenthal, H. (1992). The effects of problem-based learning on problem solving. Gifted Child Q., 36, 195–200.

Gallow D. (2015). What is Problem-Based Learning? http://www.pbl.uci.edu/whatispbl.htm

Gallagher, S., & Stepien, W. (1996). Content acquisition in problem-based learning: Depth versus breadth in American studies. J. Educ. Gifted, 19, 257–275.

Greeno, J. G., Collins, A., & Resnick, L. B. (1996). Cognition and learning. In Berliner, D. C., and Calfee, R. C. (eds.), Handbook of Educational Psychology, Macmillan, New York, 15–46.

Hmelo, C. E. (1998). Problem-based learning: Effects on the early acquisition of cognitive skill in medicine. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 7, 173-208.

Hmelo, C., Shikano, T., Bras, B., Mulholland, J., Realff, M., & Vanegas, J. (1995). A problembased course in sustainable technology. In Budny, D., Herrick, R., Bjedov, G., and Perry, J. B. (eds.), Frontiers in Education 1995, American Society for Engineering Education, Washington, DC.

Hmelo, C. E., & Ferrari, M. (1997). The problem-based learning tutorial: Cultivating higher order thinking skills. J. Educ. Gifted ,20, 401–422.

Hmelo,C. E., Gotterer,G. S., & Bransford, J.D. (1997) A theory-driven approach to assessing the cognitive effects of PBL. Instr. Sci., 25, 387–408.

Hmelo, C. E., Holton, D., & Kolodner, J. L. (2000). Designing to learn about complex systems. J. Learn. Sci. ,9, 247–298.

Hmelo-Silver, C. E. (2000). Knowledge recycling: Crisscrossing the landscape of educational psychology in a problem-based learning course for preservice teachers. Journal on Excellencein College Teaching, 11, 41-56.

Hmelo-Silver, C. E. (2002). Collaborative ways of knowing: Issues in facilitation. In Stahl, G. (ed.), Proceedings of CSCL 2002, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 199–208.

Hmelo-Silver, C. E., & Barrows, H. S. (2003). Facilitating collaborative ways of knowing. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Kilpatrick, W. H. (1918). The project method. Teach. Coll. Rec. ,19, 319–335.

Kilpatrick, W. H. (1921). Dangers and difficulties of the project method and how to overcome them: Introductory statement: Definition of terms. Teach. Coll. Rec. ,22, 282–288.

Kolodner, J. L. (1993). Case-Based Reasoning, Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, CA.

Kolodner, J. L., Hmelo, C. E., & Narayanan, N. H. (1996). Problem-based learning meets case-based reasoning. In Edelson,D. C., and Domeshek, E. A. (eds.), Proceedings of ICLS 96, AACE, Charlottesville, VA, 188–195.

Koschmann, T. (1999). Editor’s introduction: Making meaning of meaning making. Discourse Processes, 27, 103-117.

Koschmann, T., Glenn, P., & Conlee, M. (1999). Theory presentation and assessment in a problem- based learning group. Discourse Processes, 27, 119-133.

Koschmann, T. D., Myers, A. C., Feltovich, P. J., & Barrows, H. S. (1994). Using technology to assist in realizing effective learning and instruction: A principled approach to the use of computers in collaborative learning. J. Learn. Sci., 3, 225–262.

Kumaravadivelu, B. (1984) Understanding language teaching: From method to postmethod. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Lampert, M. (2001). Teaching Problems and the Problems of Teaching, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

Larsson, J. (2001). Problem-based learning: A possible approach to language education? Polonia Institute Jagiellonian University www.nada.kth.se/~jla/docs/PBL.pdf

Lesgold, A., Rubinson, H., Feltovich, P., Glaser, R., Klopfer,D., & Wang,Y. (1988). Expertise in a complex skill: Diagnosing x-ray pictures. In Chi, M. T. H., Glaser, R., and Farr, M. J. (eds.), The Nature of Expertise, Erlbaum. Hillsdale, NJ, 311–342.

Needham, D. R., & Begg, I. M. (1991). Problem-oriented training promotes spontaneous analogical transfer. Memory-oriented training promotes memory for training. Mem. Cogn. ,19, 543–557.

Norman, G. R., & Schmidt. H. G. (1992).The psychological basis of problem based learning.

Norman, G. R., Brooks, L. R., Colle, C., & Hatala, H. (1998). Relative effectiveness of instruction in forward and backward reasoning. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA.

Norman, G. R., Trott, A. D., Brooks, L. R., & Smith, E. K. (1994). Cognitive differences in clinical reasoning related to postgraduate training. Teach. Learn. Med., 6, 114–120.

Novick, L. R., & Hmelo, C. E. (1994). Transferring symbolic representations across nonisomorphic problems. J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn., 20, 1296–1321.

Patel,V. L., Groen, G. J., & Norman, G. R. (1991). Effects of conventional and problem-based medical curricula on problem solving. Acad. Med. ,66, 380–389.

Patel, V. L., Groen, G. J., & Norman, G. R. (1993). Reasoning and instruction in medical curricula. Cogn. Instr. ,1, 335–378.

Pea, R. D. (1993). Practices of distributed intelligence and designs for education. In Salomon, G., and Perkins, D. (eds.), Distributed Cognitions: Psychological and Educational Considerations, Cambridge University Press, New York, 47–87.

Perfetto, G. A., Bransford, J. D., & Franks, J. J. (1983). Constraints on access in a problemsolving context. Mem. Cogn. ,11,24–31.

Ram, P. (1999). Problem-based learning in undergraduate instruction: A sophomore chemistry laboratory. J. Chem. Educ. ,76, 1122–1126.

Robert M.k.W, & Kwan C. (1997). The use of problem-based learning in medical education. Journal of Mediacal education, 1(2), p.149.mcmaster.ca/mdprog/…/Use_of_PBL_Article

Salomon, G. (1993). No distribution without individual cognition: A dynamic interactional view. In Salomon, G., and Perkins, D. (eds.), Distributed Cognitions: Psychological and Educational Considerations, Cambridge University Press, New York,111–138.

Salomon, G., & Perkins, D. N. (1989). Rocky roads to transfer: Rethinking mechanisms of a neglected phenomenon. Educ. Psychol., 24, 113–142.

Saslow, J., & Ascher, A. (2008) Top Notch 2. USA: Pearson-Longman

Savery, J. R. (2006). Overview of problem-based learning: definitions and distinctions. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning 1(1),p.9.http://dx.doi.org/10.7771/1541-5015.1002.

Schmidt, H. G., DeVolder, M. L., De Grave, W. S., Moust, J. H. C., & Patel, V. L. (1989). Explanatory models in the processing of science text: The role of prior knowledge activation through small-group discussion. J. Educ. Psychol. ,81, 610–619.7

Schmidt, H. G., & Moust, J. H. C. (2000). Factors affecting small-group tutorial learning: A review of research. In Evensen, D., and Hmelo, C. E. (eds.), Problem-Based Learning: A Research Perspective on Learning Interactions, Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, 19–51.

Schwartz, D. L.,& Bransford, J. D. (1998). A time for telling. Cogn. Instr. ,16, 475–522.

Scott, K. S. (2014). A multilevel analysis of problem-based learning design characteristics. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 8,2.

Smilovitz, R. (1996). If not now when?: Education not schooling. Morris Publishing.

Shikano, T., & Hmelo, C. E. (1996, April). Students’ learning strategies in a problem-based curriculum for sustainable technology. Paper presented at American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting, New York.

Stepien, W. J., & Gallagher, S. A. (1993). Problem-based learning: As authentic as it gets. Educ. Leadersh. ,50(7), 25–29.

Torp, L., & Sage, S. (2002). Problems as Possibilities: Problem-Based Learning for K–12 Education, 2nd ed., ASCD, Alexandria, VA.

Vernon, D. T., & Blake, R. L. (1993). Does problem-based learning work? : A meta-analysis of evaluative research. Acad. Med. ,68, 550–563.

Vye, N. J., Goldman, S. R., Voss, J. F., Hmelo, C., & Williams, S. (1997). Complex math problem-solving by individuals and dyads: When and why are two heads better than one? Cogn. Instr. ,15, 435–484.

Woods D. R., Hall F. L., Eyles C. H. ,& Hrymak A. N. (1996). Tutored versus tutorless groups in problem-based learning. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 60.

http://www.researchgate.net/publication/228450997_Tutored_versus_tutorless_groups_in_problem-based_learning. Southern Illinois University School of Medicine.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2010-2019 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

Advances in Language and Literary Studies

You may require to add the 'aiac.org.au' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.