Examining the Effect of Interference on Short-term Memory Recall of Arabic Abstract and Concrete Words Using Free, Cued, and Serial Recall Paradigms

Ahmed Mohammed Saleh Alduais, Yasir Saad Almukhaizeem

Abstract


Purpose: To see if there is a correlation between interference and short-term memory recall and to examine interference as a factor affecting memory recalling of Arabic and abstract words through free, cued, and serial recall tasks. Method: Four groups of undergraduates in King Saud University, Saudi Arabia participated in this study. The first group consisted of 9 undergraduates who were trained to perform three types of recall for 20 Arabic abstract and concrete words. The second, third and fourth groups consisted of 27 undergraduates where each group was trained only to perform one recall type: free recall, cued recall and serial recall respectively. Interference (short-term memory interruption) was the independent variable and a number of recalled abstract and concrete words was the dependent variable. The used materials in this study were: abstract and concrete words classification form based on four factors was distributed to the participants (concreteness, imageability, meaningfulness, and age of acquisition), three oral recall forms, three written recall forms, and observation sheets for each type of recall. Also, three methods were used: auditory, visual, and written methods. Results: Findings indicated that interference effect on short-term memory recall of Arabic abstract and concrete words was not significant especially in the case of free and serial recall paradigms. The difference between the total number of recalled Arabic abstract and concrete words was also very slight. One other the hand, we came to the conclusion that Pearson’s correlation between interference at these memory recall paradigms (M: 1.66, SD= .47) and the short-term memory recall (M: 1.75, SD= .43) supported the research hypothesis that those participants with oral interruptions tended to recall slightly less Arabic abstract and concrete words, whereas those participants with no oral interruptions would tend to recall slightly more Arabic abstract and concrete words, r = .713, p< 0.01. Conclusions: Interference as a factor affecting short-term memory recall didn’t show any significant effect where there was a noticeable increase or decrease in the number of recalled words; although, it is moderately yet positively correlated to short-term memory recall. 

Keywords: abstract words, concrete words, words recall, free recall, cued recall, serial recall, recall effects, interference, short-term memory     


Full Text:

PDF

References


Annis, J., Malmberg, K. J., Criss, A. H., & Shiffrin, R. M. (2013). Sources of interference in recognition testing. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 39(5), 1365. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1433115263?accountid=142908

Atkinson, R. C., & Shiffrin, R. M. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In K. W. Spence, & J. T. Spence (Eds.), he Psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory (Vol. 2, pp. 90-191).

Baddeley, A. (1999). Essentials of Human Memory. East Sussex: Psychology Press Ltd.

Baddeley, A. D. (2004). The Psychology of Memory. In A. Baddeley, M. Kopelman, & B. Wilson (Eds.), The Essential Handbook of Memory Disorders for Clinicians. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Balota, D. A., Cowan, N., & Engle, R. W. (1990). Suffix interference in the recall of linguistically coherent speech. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 16(3), 446-456. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/79775708?accountid=142908

Byrne, J. H. (Ed.). (2003). Learning & Memory. New York: Macmillan Reference.

Campoy, G. (2011). Retroactive interference in short-term memory and the word-length effect. Acta Psychologica, 138(1), 135-142. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2011.05.016

Chiasson, S., Forget, A., & Stobert, E. (2009). Multiple Password Interference in Text Passwords and Click-Based Graphical Passwords. CCS '09 Proceedings of the 16th ACM conference on Computer and communications security (pp. 500-511). New York: ACM, NY, USA.

Conway, M. A. (Ed.). (1997). Cognitive models of memory. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Cowan, N. (2005). Working memory capacity. New York: Psychology Press Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Dahlstrom, D., & Ultis, J. (2014, March 1). Modeling Reaction Time for Abstract and Concrete Concepts using a Recurrent Network. San Diego, San Diego, USA.

Darby, K., & Sloutsky, V. M. (2013). Proactive and Retroactive Interference Effects in Development. The Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2130-2135). Cognitive Science Society.

Dukes, W. F., & Bastian, J. (1966). Recall of abstract and concrete words equated for meaningfulness. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 5(5), pp. 455–458.

Eichenbaum, H. (2002). The cognitive neuroscience of memory: an introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.

Faust, M. (Ed.). (2012). The Handbook of the Neuropsychology of Language. West Sussex: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Fliessbach, K., Weis, S., Klaver, P., Elger, C. E., & Weber, B. (2006). The effect of word concreteness on recognition memory. NeuroImage, 32(3), 1413-1421. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.06.007

Foster, J. K. (2009). Memory: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press .

Greene, J. (1987). Memory, Thinking and Language: Topics in cognitive psychology. London: Methuen.

Hanley, J. R., Hunt, R. P., Steed, D. A., & Jackman, S. (2013). Concreteness and word production. Memory & Cognition, 41(3), 365-377. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1347611949?accountid=142908

Harad, L., & Coch, D. (2009). Remembering abstract vs. concrete words. Poster presented at the 18th Annual Wetterhahn Undergraduate Science Poster Symposium, Women in Science Project (WISP), Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA.

Henson, R., Hartley, T., Burgess, N., Hitch, G., & Flude, B. (2003). Selective interference with verbal short-term memory for serial order information: A new paradigm and tests of a timing-signal hypothesis. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. A, Human Experimental Psychology, 56(8), 1307-1334. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/71304336?accountid=142908

Lagishetti, S. K., & Goswami, S. P. (2012). MEASUREMENT OF REACTION TIME FOR PROCESSING OF CONCRETE AND ABSTRACT WORDS. Journal of All India Institute of Speech and Hearing JAIISH, 31, pp. 139-144.

Lewis, J. L., & Kamil, A. C. (2006). Interference effects in the memory for serially presented locations in Clark’s nutcrackers, nucifraga Columbiana. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Behavior Processes, 32(4), 407-418. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/68969577?accountid=142908

Lustig, C., May, C. P., & Hasher, L. (2001). Working memory span and the role of proactive interference. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 130(2), pp. 199-207.

Mace, J. H. (Ed.). (2007). Involuntary memory. Malden: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

MacKay-Brandt, A. (2014). Interference. Retrieved from Springer reference: http://springerreference.com/docs/html/chapterdbid/184044.html

Mense, B. R., Debney, S. J., & Druce, T. M. (2006). Short-term auditory memory activities. Camber well: ACER Press.

Menzel, R. (Ed.). (2008). Learning and Memory. AP.

Monsell, S., & Driver, J. (2000). Control of Cognitive Processes. MIT Press.

Nairne, J. S., Neath, I., & Serra, M. (1997). Proactive interference plays a role in the word-length effect. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 4(4), pp. 541-545.

Noordman-Vonk, W. (Ed.). (1979). Retrieval from Semantic Memory. New York: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Oberauer, K., & Lewandowsky, S. (2008). Forgetting in immediate serial recall: Decay, temporal distinctiveness, or interference? Psychological Review, 115(3), 544-576. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/61922979?accountid=142908

Parker, A., Wilding, E. L., & Bussey, T. J. (Eds.). (2002). The Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory. Hove: Psychology Press.

Pickering, S. J. (Ed.). (2006). Working memory and education. Academic Press.

Pulvermuller, F. (2002). The Neuroscience of Language: On Brain Circuits of Words and Serial Order. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Randall, M. (2007). Memory, Psychology and Second Language Learning. Amsterdam: John Benjamin’s Publishing Company.

Richards, B., Daller, M. H., Malvern, D. D., Meara, P., Milton, J., & Treffers-Daller, J. (Eds.). (2009). Vocabulary Studies in First and Second Language Acquisition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Rich, J. B. (2014). Retroactive Interference. Retrieved from Springer reference: Retroactive Interference

Rieber, R. W., & Salzinger, K. (1998). Psychology: Theoretical-Historical Perspectives (2nd Ed.). Washington D. C.: American Psychological Association.

Risser, M. R., McNamara, D. S., Baldwin, C. L., Scerbo, M. W., & Barshi, I. (2002). Interference Effects on the Recall of Words Heard and Read: Considerations for ATC Communication. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 392-396.

Schwanenflugel, P. J., Akin, C., & Luh, W. (1992). Context availability and the recall of abstract and concrete words. Memory & Cognition (Pre-2011), 20(1), 96-104. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/217453817?accountid=142908

Shiffrin, R., & Nosofsky, R. (1994). Seven plus or minus two: a commentary on capacity limitations. Psychological Review, 101(2), pp. 357-61.

Sprenger, M. (1999). Learning & Memory: the Brain in Action. Alexandria: Association of Supervision & Curriculum Development.

Takac, V. P. (2008). Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Foreign Language Acquisition. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

Teague, E. B., Langer, K. G., Borod, J. C., & Bender, H. A. (2014). Proactive Interference. Retrieved from Springer reference: http://www.springerreference.com/docs/html/chapterdbid/183882.html

Thorndike, E. L., Bergman, E. O., Cobb, M. V., & Woodyard, E. (1927). The Measurement of Intelligence. Arno Press.

Tse, C. S., & Altarriba, J. (2009). The word concreteness effect occurs for positive, but not negative, emotion words in immediate serial recall. British Journal of Psychology, 91–109.

Tulving, E., & Arbuckle, T. Y. (1963). Sources of Intratrial Interference in Immediate Recall of Paired Associates. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1, pp. 321-334.

Turvey, T. M., & Weeks, A. R. (1975). Effects of proactive interference and rehearsal on the primary and secondary components of short term retention Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/64083678?accountid=142908

UK-Essays-Editors. (2014a). Visual passwords experiment into memory recall. Retrieved from ukessays.com: http://www.ukessays.co m/essays/psycho logy/visual-passwords-experiment-into -memory-recall-psycho logy-essay.php

UK-Essays-Editors. (2014b). Interference and remembering words in short term memory. Retrieved from ukessays.co m: http://www.ukessays.co m/essays/psycho logy/interference-and-remembering-words-in-short-term-memory-psycho logyessay.

UK-Essays-Editors. (2014c). The Effects of Chunking and Distraction on Short Term Memory Recall. Retrieved from ukessays.co m: http://www.ukessays.co m/essays/psycho logy/short-term-memory-recall.php

West, W. C., & Holcomb, P. J. (2000). Imaginal, semantic, and surface-level processing of concrete and abstract words: An electrophysiological investigation. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 12(6), 1024-1037. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/72554202?accountid=142908


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2010-2020 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

Advances in Language and Literary Studies

You may require to add the 'aiac.org.au' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.