Metabolic Response to Four Weeks of Muscular Endurance Resistance Training

John W. Farrell III, David J. Lantis, Carl J. Ade, Debra A. Bemben, Rebecca D. Larson

Abstract


Background: Previous investigations have shown that muscular endurance resistance training (MERT) is conducive in improving the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA). However, the metabolic response and time course for adaption is still unclear. Objective: The aims of the current study were to evaluate and track the metabolic response to an individual session of MERT as well as to assess performance adaptations of supplementing an aerobic exercise training program with four weeks of MERT. Methods: Seventeen aerobically active men were randomly assigned to either the experimental (EX) or control group (CON), 9 EX and 8 CON. Baseline measures included a graded exercise test (GXT) and 1-repetition maximum (1RM) testing for leg press (LP), leg curl (LC), and leg extension (LE). CON continued their regular aerobic activity while the EX supplemented their regular aerobic exercise with 4 weeks of MERT. Results: No significant group differences were observed for all pre-training variables. Following four weeks of training no significant differences in cardiorespiratory or metabolic variables were observed for either group. However, significant improvements in LC and LE 1-RM were observed in EX compared to CON. Substantial accumulations in blood lactate were observed following each MERT session. Conclusion: Four weeks of MERT did not improve cardiorespiratory or metabolic variables, but did significantly improve LC and LE. MERT was also observed to induce a blood lactate response similar to that of HIIT. These findings suggest greater than four weeks is need to see metabolic adaptations conducive for improved aerobic performance using MERT.      


Keywords


oxygen consumption; physical endurance; resistance training; lactates; monocarboxylic acid transporters

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aagaard, P., Andersen, J., Bennekou, M., Larsson, B., Olesen, J., Crameri, R., . . . Kjaer, M. (2011). Effects of resistance training on endurance capacity and muscle fiber composition in young top‐level cyclists. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 21(6), 298-307.

Baechle, T. R., & Earle, R. W. (2008). Essentials of strength training and conditioning: Human kinetics.

Beaver, W. L., Wasserman, K., & Whipp, B. J. (1986). A new method for detecting anaerobic threshold by gas exchange. Journal of applied physiology, 60(6), 2020-2027.

Bergman, B. C., Wolfel, E. E., Butterfield, G. E., Lopaschuk, G. D., Casazza, G. A., Horning, M. A., & Brooks, G. A. (1999). Active muscle and whole body lactate kinetics after endurance training in men. Journal of applied physiology, 87(5), 1684-1696.

Beyranvand, F. (2017). Sprint Interval Training Improves Aerobic and Anaerobic Power in Trained Female Futsal Players. International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science, 5(2), 43-47.

Billat, L. V. (1996). Use of blood lactate measurements for prediction of exercise performance and for control of training. Sports Medicine, 22(3), 157-175.

Borg, G. (1970). Perceived exertion as an indicator of somatic stress. Scand J Rehabil Med, 2, 92-98.

Brooks, G. A. (2010). What does glycolysis make and why is it important? Journal of applied physiology, 108(6), 1450-1451.

Burgomaster, K. A., Heigenhauser, G. J., & Gibala, M. J. (2006). Effect of short-term sprint interval training on human skeletal muscle carbohydrate metabolism during exercise and time-trial performance. Journal of applied physiology, 100(6), 2041-2047.

Burgomaster, K. A., Hughes, S. C., Heigenhauser, G. J., Bradwell, S. N., & Gibala, M. J. (2005). Six sessions of sprint interval training increases muscle oxidative potential and cycle endurance capacity in humans. Journal of applied physiology, 98(6), 1985-1990.

Campos, G. E., Luecke, T. J., Wendeln, H. K., Toma, K., Hagerman, F. C., Murray, T. F., . . . Staron, R. S. (2002). Muscular adaptations in response to three different resistance-training regimens: specificity of repetition maximum training zones. European journal of applied physiology, 88(1-2), 50-60.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Cruz, R. S. d. O., de Aguiar, R. A., Turnes, T., Penteado Dos Santos, R., Fernandes Mendes de Oliveira, M., & Caputo, F. (2012). Intracellular shuttle: the lactate aerobic metabolism. The Scientific World Journal, 2012.

Donovan, C. M., & Brooks, G. A. (1983). Endurance training affects lactate clearance, not lactate production. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism, 244(1), E83-E92.

Edge, J., Bishop, D., & Goodman, C. (2006). The effects of training intensity on muscle buffer capacity in females. European journal of applied physiology, 96(1), 97-105.

Edge, J., Hill-Haas, S., Goodman, C., & Bishop, D. (2006). Effects of Resistance Training on H^+ Regulation, Buffer Capacity, and Repeated Sprints. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(11), 2004.

Eniseler, N. (2005). Heart rate and blood lactate concentrations as predictors of physiological load on elite soccer players during various soccer training activities. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 19(4), 799-804.

Farrell III, J. W., Lantis, D. J., Ade, C. J., Cantrell, G. S., & Larson, R. D. (2017). Aerobic exercise supplemented with muscular endurance training improves onset of blood lactate accumulation. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, (in press).

Faude, O., Kindermann, W., & Meyer, T. (2009). Lactate threshold concepts. Sports Medicine, 39(6), 469-490.

Figueira, T. R., Caputo, F., Pelarigo, J. G., & Denadai, B. S. (2008). Influence of exercise mode and maximal lactate-steady-state concentration on the validity of OBLA to predict maximal lactate-steady-state in active individuals. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 11(3), 280-286.

Fleck, S. J. (1994). Detraining: Its Effects on Endurance and Strength. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 16(1), 22-28.

Halson, S. L. (2014). Monitoring training load to understand fatigue in athletes. Sports Medicine, 44(2), 139-147.

Heyward, V. H. (1992). Advanced Fitness Assessment and Exercise Prescription. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 24(2), 278.

Hickson, R., Dvorak, B., Gorostiaga, E., Kurowski, T., & Foster, C. (1988). Potential for strength and endurance training to amplify endurance performance. Journal of applied physiology, 65(5), 2285-2290.

Jakeman, J., Adamson, S., & Babraj, J. (2012). Extremely short duration high-intensity training substantially improves endurance performance in triathletes. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 37(5), 976-981.

Jung, A. P. (2003). The impact of resistance training on distance running performance. Sports Medicine, 33(7), 539-552.

Karsten, B., Stevens, L., Colpus, M., Larumbe-Zabala, E., & Naclerio, F. (2016). The effects of a sports specific maximal strength and conditioning training on critical velocity, anaerobic running distance and 5-km race performance. International journal of sports physiology and performance, 11(1), 80-85.

Kraemer, W., Adams, K., Cafarelli, E., Dudley, G., Dooly, C., Feigenbaum, M., . . . Hoffman, J. (2002). J. Potteiger, MH Stone, NA Ratamess, and T. Triplett-Mcbride. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 34(2), 364-380.

Lantis, D. J., Farrell III, J. W., Cantrell, G. S., & Larson, R. D. (2017). Eight Weeks of High-Volume Resistance Training Improves Onset of Blood Lactate in Trained Individuals. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 31(8), 2176-2182.

Laursen, P. B., & Jenkins, D. G. (2002). The scientific basis for high-intensity interval training. Sports Medicine, 32(1), 53-73.

Laursen, P. B., Shing, C. M., Peake, J. M., Coombes, J. S., & Jenkins, D. G. (2005). Influence of high-intensity interval training on adaptations in well-trained cyclists. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 19(3), 527.

Losnegard, T., Mikkelsen, K., Rønnestad, B., Hallén, J., Rud, B., & Raastad, T. (2011). The effect of heavy strength training on muscle mass and physical performance in elite cross country skiers. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 21(3), 389-401.

Mikkola, J., Vesterinen, V., Taipale, R., Capostagno, B., Häkkinen, K., & Nummela, A. (2011). Effect of resistance training regimens on treadmill running and neuromuscular performance in recreational endurance runners. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(13), 1359-1371.

Millet, G. P., Jaouen, B., Borrani, F., & Candau, R. (2002). Effects of concurrent endurance and strength training on running economy and VO~ 2 kinetics. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(8), 1351-1359.

Rogatzki, M. J., Wright, G. A., Mikat, R. P., & Brice, A. G. (2014). Blood Ammonium and Lactate Accumulation Response to Different Training Protocols Using the Parallel Squat Exercise. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 28(4), 1113-1118.

Rønnestad, B., Hansen, J., & Ellefsen, S. (2014). Block periodization of high‐intensity aerobic intervals provides superior training effects in trained cyclists. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 24(1), 34-42.

Rønnestad, B. R., Hansen, E. A., & Raastad, T. (2010). Effect of heavy strength training on thigh muscle cross-sectional area, performance determinants, and performance in well-trained cyclists. European journal of applied physiology, 108(5), 965-975.

Rønnestad, B. R., Kojedal, Ø., Losnegard, T., Kvamme, B., & Raastad, T. (2012). Effect of heavy strength training on muscle thickness, strength, jump performance, and endurance performance in well-trained Nordic Combined athletes. European journal of applied physiology, 112(6), 2341-2352.

Schott, J., McCully, K., & Rutherford, O. (1995). The role of metabolites in strength training. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology, 71(4), 337-341.

Sjödin, B., & Jacobs, I. (1981). Onset of blood lactate accumulation and marathon running performance. International journal of sports medicine, 2(1), 23-26.

Sjödin, B., Jacobs, I., & Svedenhag, J. (1982). Changes in onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA) and muscle enzymes after training at OBLA. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology, 49(1), 45-57.

Talanian, J. L., Galloway, S. D., Heigenhauser, G. J., Bonen, A., & Spriet, L. L. (2007). Two weeks of high-intensity aerobic interval training increases the capacity for fat oxidation during exercise in women. Journal of applied physiology, 102(4), 1439-1447.

Tanaka, H., & Swensen, T. (1998). Impact of resistance training on endurance performance. Sports Medicine, 25(3), 191-200.

Zupan, M. F., & Petosa, P. S. (1995). Aerobic and Resistance Cross-Training for Peak Triathlon Performance. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 17(5), 7-12.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijkss.v.5n.4p.10

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2019 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science

You may require to add the 'aiac.org.au' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.