Effects of Short-Term Jump Squat Training With and Without Chains on Strength and Power in Recreational Lifters

David C. Archer, Lee E. Brown, Jared W. Coburn, Andrew J. Galpin, Phillip C. Drouet, Whitney D. Leyva, Cameron N. Munger, Megan A. Wong

Abstract


Background: The use of chains in resistance training is a way to accommodate the muscular strength curve. Short-term training and jump squats have been shown to increase back squat strength, but not in conjunction with each other or with chains. Jump squats have also been used to increase jump height and power. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term jump squat training with and without chains on strength and power. Methods: Thirty-one resistance-trained men volunteered to participate (age = 23.87 ± 2.2 years, height=174.87 ± 6.94 cm, mass = 82.74 ± 14.95 kg) and were randomly assigned to one of three groups [control (C) = 10, no chains (NC) =10, or chains (CH) = 11]. Participants had their jump height (VJ) and back squat strength (BS) tested before and after a week of training. The NC and CH groups performed three training sessions consisting of five sets of three reps of jump squats at 30% 1RM with 30s rest between sets. The CH group had 20% of their load added by chains when standing erect. The C group did not train. Results: A 3 (group: CH, NC, C) x 2 (time: pre, post) mixed factor ANOVA revealed a significant (p = 0.006) interaction for back squat 1RM. Both the CH (pre 142.56 ± 20.40 kg; post 145.66 ± 19.59 kg) and NC (pre 150.00 ± 15.23 kg; post 154.77 ± 15.09 kg) groups significantly increased while the C (pre 157.27 ± 25.35 kg; post 156.36 ± 24.85 kg) group showed no difference. There were no significant interactions (p =0.32) or main effects for VJ (C = pre 50.59 ± 9.39cm; post 51.29 ± 9.68cm; NC = pre 55.29 ± 5.23cm; post 57.39 ± 5.22cm; CH = pre 46.19 ± 5.02; post 47.45 ± 4.62.) Conclusions: The CH group was able to increase strength while lifting less overall weight. Coaches may use short-term training with chains to yield a similar increase in back squat strength as without chains.

Keywords: variable resistance, back squats, novel, vertical jump


Full Text:

PDF

References


Aagaard, P., Simonsen, E.B., Andersen, J.L., Magnusson, P., & Dyhre-Poulsen, P. (2002). Increased rate of force development and neural drive of human skeletal muscle following resistance training. Journal of Applied Physiology, 93, 1318-1326.

Adibpour, N., Bakht, H.N., & Behpour, N. (2012). Comparison of the effect of plyometric and weight training programs on vertical jumps in female basketball players. World Journal of Sport Sciences, 7(2), 99-104.

Alemdaroglu, U., Dundar, U., Koklu, Y., Findikoglu, G. (2013). The effect of exercise order incorporating plyometric and resistance training on isokinetic leg strength and vertical jump performance: A comparative study. Isokinetics and Exercise Science, 21, 211-21.

Arabatzi, F., Kellius, E., Saez-Saez De Villarreal, E. (2010). Vertical jump biomechanics after plyometric, weight lifting, and combined weight lifting + plyometric training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(9), 240-2448.

Barak, Y., Ayalon, M., & Dvir, Z. (2004). Transferability of strength gains from limited to full range of motion. Medicine and Science in Sports Medicine, 36(8), 1413-1420.

Bevan, H.R., Bunce, P.J., Owen, N.J., Bennett, M.A., Cook, C.J., Cunningham, D.J., Newton, R.U., & Kilduff, L.P. (2010). Optimal loading for the development of peak power output in professional rugby players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(1), 43-47.

Brown, L.E., & Weir, J.P. (2001). ASEP procedures recommendation I: Accurate assessment of muscular strength and power. Journal of Exercise Physiology Online, 4(3), 1-21.

Brown, L.E., & Whitehurst, M. (2003). The effect of short-term isokinetic training on force and rate of velocity development. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 17(1), 88-94.

Cale-Benzoor, M.C., Dickstein, R., Arnon, M., & Ayalon, M. (2014). Strength enhancement with limited range closed kinetic chain isokinetic exercise of the upper extremity. Isokinetics and Exercise Science, 22, 37-46.

Coburn, J.W. Housh, T.J., Malek, M.H., Weir, J.P., Cramer, J.T., Beck, T.W., & Johnson, G.O. (2006). Neuromuscular responses to three days of velocity-specific isokinetic training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20(4), 892-898.

Cormie, P., McGuigan, M.R., & Newton, R.U. (2010). Adaptations in athletic performance after ballistic power versus strength training. Medicine & Science in Sport & Exercise, 42(8), 1582-1598.

Dalen, T., Welde, B., Van Den Tillaar, R., & Aune, T.K. (2013). Effect of single vs. multi joint ballistic resistance training upon vertical jump performance. Acta Kinesiologiae Tartuensis, 19, 86-97.

Gabriel, D.A., Kamen, G., & Frost, G. (2006). Neural adaptations to resistive exercise: Mechanisms and recommendations for training practices. Sports Medicine, 36(2), 133-149.

Galpin, A.J., Malyszek, K.K., Davis, K.A., Record, S.M., Brown, L.E., Coburn, J.W., Harmon, R.A., Steele, J.M., & Manolovitz, A.D. (2015.) Acute effects of elastic bands on kinetic characteristics during the deadlift at moderate and heavy loads. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research,29(12), 3271-3278.

Gamble, P. (2008). Implications and applications of training specificity for coaches and athletes. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 28(3), 54-58.

Ghigiarelli, J.J., Nagle E.F., Gross, F.L., Robertson, R.J., Irrgang, J.J., & Myslinski, T. (2009). The effects of a 7-week heavy elastic band and weight chain program on upper-body strength and upper-body power in a sample of division 1-AA football players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(3), 756-764.

Haff, G.G., Hobbs, R.T., Haff, E.E., Sands, W.A., Pierce, K.C., & Stone, M.H. (2008). Cluster training: A novel method for introducing training program variation. Strength Conditioning Journal, 30, 67-76,

Hoffman J.R., Ratamess, N.A., Cooper, J.J., Kang, J, Chilakos, A., & Faigenbaum, A.D. (2005). Comparison of loaded and unloaded jump squat training on strength/power performance in college football players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 19(4), 810-815.

Israetel, M. A., McBride, J.M., Nuzzo, J.L., Skinner J.W., & Dayne, A.M. (2010). Kinetic and kinematic differences between squats performed with and without elastic bands. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(1), 190-194.

Jimenez-Reyes, P., Pareja-Blanco, F., Balsalobre-Fernandez, C., Cuadrado-Penafiel, V., Ortega-Becerra, M.A., & Gonzalez-Badillo, J.J. (2015). Jump-squat performance and its relationship with relative training intensity in high-level athletes. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 10, 1036-1040.

Jones, A., Brown, L.E., Coburn, J.W., & Noffal, G.J. (2015). Effects of foam rolling on vertical jump performance. International Journal of Kinesiology & Sport Science, 3(3), 38-42.

MacKenzie, S.J., Lavers, R.J., & Wallace, B.B. (2014). A biomechanical comparison of the vertical jump, power clean, and jump squat. Journal of Sports Sciences, 1-10.

McBride, J, Triplett-McBride T, Davie, A, & Newton, R. (2002). The effect of heavy- vs. Light-load jump squats on the development of strength, power, and speed. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 16, 75-82.

McCurdy, K., Langford, G., Ernest, J., Jenkerson, D., & Doscher, M. (2009). Comparison of chain- and plate-loaded bench press training on strength, joint pain, and muscle soreness in division II baseball players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(1), 187-195.

McLellan, C.P., Lovell, D.I., & Gass, G.C. (2011). The role of rate of force development on vertical jump performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 25(2), 379-385.

McMaster, T., Cronin, J., & McGuigan, M. (2009). Forms of variable resistance training. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 31(1), 50-64.

McMaster, T., Cronin, J., & McGuigan, M. (2010). Quantification of rubber and chain-based resistance modes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research,24(8), 2056-2064.

Moreno, S.D., Brown, L.E., Coburn, J.W., & Judelson, D.A. (2014.) Effect of cluster sets on plyometric jump power. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 28(9), 2424-2428.

Neelly, K.R., Terry, J. G., & Morris, M.J. (2010). A mechanical comparison of linear and double-looped hung supplemental heavy chain resistance to the back squat: A case study. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(1), 278-281.

Nijem, R.M., Coburn, J.W., Brown, L.E., Lynn, S.K., & Ciccone, A.B. (2016). An electromyographic and force plate analysis of the deadlift performed with and without chains. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30(5), 1177-1182.

Otto, W.H., Coburn, J.W., Brown, L.E., & Spiering, B.A. (2012). Effects of weightlifting vs. kettlebell training on vertical jump, strength, and body composition. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26(5), 1199-1202.

Ratamess, N.A. adaptations to anaerobic training programs. In Baechle, T.R., & Earle, R.W. (Eds.), Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning (pp. 90-113). Human Kinetics.

Rhea, M.R., Kenn, J.G., & Dermody, B.M. (2009). Alterations in speed of squat movement and the use of accommodated resistance among college athletes training for power. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(9), 2645-2650.

Sleivert,G., & Taingahue, M. (2004). The relationship between maximal jump-squat power and sprint acceleration in athletes. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 91, 46-52.

Smilios, I., Pilianidis, T., Sotiropoulos, K., Antonakis, M., & Tokmakidis, S.P. (2005). Short-term effects of selected exercise and load in contrast training on vertical jump performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 19(1), 135-139.

Swinton, P.A., Stewart, A.D., Lloyd, R., Aqouris, I., & Keogh, J.W. (2012). Effect of load positioning on the kinematics and kinetics of weighted vertical jumps. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26(4), 906-913.

Thomas, G.A., Kraemer, W.J., Spiering, B.A., Volek, J.S., Anderson, J.M., & Maresh, C.M. (2007). Maximal power at different percentages of one repetition maximum: influence of resistance and gender. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21(2), 336-342.

Tillin, N.A., & Folland, J.P. (2014). Maximal and explosive strength training elicit distinct neuromuscular adaptations, specific to the training stimulus. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 114, 365-374.

Turner, A.P., Unholz, C.N., Potts, N., & Coleman, S.G.S. (2012). Peak power, force, and velocity during jump squats in professional rugby players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26(6), 1594-1600.

Wallace, B.J., Winchester, J.B, & McGuigan, M.R. (2006). Effects of elastic bands on force and power characteristics during the back squat exercise. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20(2), 268-272.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2017 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science

You may require to add the 'aiac.org.au' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.