A Systematic Review of Studies on Augmented Reality Based Applications in Primary Education

Hakan Çetin


This research aims to examine the researches based on augmented reality-based applications conducted for primary school students between 2015-2021 and to determine the positive and negative effects of this applications on students. The document analysis method was used in the research. In this context, articles containing AR-based applications prepared for primary school students using the keywords “augmented reality”, “primary education”, “elementary education”, “teachers ‘and parents’ perceptions” were examined in ScienceDirect, ERIC, Sagepub and SpringerLink databases. As a result of the research, 48 articles were determined in accordance with the criteria. As a result of the content analysis, these studies were divided into seven different categories under the augmented reality theme: teacher and parent perceptions, reading and literacy skills, science education, special education, language education, mathematics education, and history/social sciences education. It has been observed that these practices improve students’ motivation, academic achievement and remembering skills, increase their vocabulary, help them develop a positive attitude towards lessons, and improve their spatial thinking and creativity skills. In addition, there are also studies that have negative results stating that it limits the imagination, requires a lot of time for the application, it prevents reading because it is distracting, there is no available amount of free AR-based applications, and there are inadequate professional support to teachers for the use of these applications.


Augmented reality, primary education, educational technology, reading, science education, special education

Full Text:



Akyol, H. (2016). Türkçe ilkokul yazma öğretimi. Pegem Akademi: Ankara.

Alalwan, N., Cheng, L., Al-Samarraie, H., Yousef, R., Alzahrani, A. I., & Sarsam, S. M. (2020). Challenges and prospects of virtual reality and augmented reality utilization among primary school teachers: A developing country perspective. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 66, 100876.

Alhumaidan, H., Lo, K. P. Y., & Selby, A. (2018). Co-designing with children a collaborative augmented reality book based on a primary school textbook. International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction, 15, 24-36.

Altınpulluk, H. (2015). Artırılmış gerçekliğ i anlamak: kavramlar ve uygulamalar. Aç ıköğ retim Uygulamaları ve Araştırmaları Dergisi, 1 (4), 123-131.

Amir, M. F., Fediyanto, N., Rudyanto, H. E., Afifah, D. S. N., & Tortop, H. S. (2020). Elementary students’ perceptions of 3Dmetric: A cross-sectional study. Heliyon, 6(6), e04052.

Arth, C., Grasset, R., Gruber, L., Langlotz, T., Mulloni, A., & Wagner, D. (2015). The history of mobile augmented reality. arXiv preprint arXiv:1505.01319.

Arvanitaki, M., & Zaranis, N. (2020). The use of ICT in teaching geometry in primary school. Education and Information Technologies, 25, 5003-5016.

Azuma, R. T. (1997). A survey of augmented reality. Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments, 6(4), 355-385.

Baker, L. & Wigfield, A. (1999). Dimensions of children’s motivation for reading and their relations to reading activity and reading achievement. Reading Research Quarterly, 34(4), 452–477.

Baltacı, A. (2019). Nitel araş tırma süreci: Nitel bir araş tırma nasıl yapılır? Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 5(2), 368-388.

Baragash, R. S., Al-Samarraie, H., Alzahrani, A. I., & Alfarraj, O. (2020). Augmented reality in special education: A meta-analysis of single-subject design studies. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 35(3), 382-397.

Beyoğlu, D., Hursen, C., & Nasiboglu, A. (2020). Use of mixed reality applications in teaching of science. Education and Information Technologies, 25(5), 4271-4286.

Bhagat, K. K., Liou, W. K., Michael Spector, J., & Chang, C. Y. (2019). To use augmented reality or not in formative assessment: A comparative study. Interactive Learning Environments, 27(5-6), 830-840.

Billinghurst, M., & Duenser, A. (2012). Augmented reality in the classroom. Computer, 45(7), 56-63.

Bursali, H., & Yilmaz, R. M. (2019). Effect of augmented reality applications on secondary school students’ reading comprehension and learning permanency. Computers in Human Behavior, 95, 126-135.

Cakir, R., & Korkmaz, O. (2019). The effectiveness of augmented reality environments on individuals with special education needs. Education and Information Technologies, 24(2), 1631-1659.

Carreon, A., Smith, S. J., & Rowland, A. (2020). Augmented Reality: Creating and Implementing Digital Classroom Supports. Journal of Special Education Technology, 35(2), 109-115.

Chang, S. C., & Hwang, G. J. (2018). Impacts of an augmented reality-based flipped learning guiding approach on students’ scientific project performance and perceptions. Computers & Education, 125, 226-239.

Chen, C. H. (2020). Impacts of augmented reality and a digital game on students’ science learning with reflection prompts in multimedia learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 68(6), 3057-3076.

Chen, C. H., Lee, I. J., & Lin, L. Y. (2016). Augmented reality-based video-modeling storybook of nonverbal facial cues for children with autism spectrum disorder to improve their perceptions and judgments of facial expressions and emotions. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 477-485.

Chen, M. B., Wang, S. G., Chen, Y. N., Chen, X. F., & Lin, Y. Z. (2020). A Preliminary Study of the Influence of Game Types on the Learning Interests of Primary School Students in Digital Games. Education Sciences, 10(4), 96.

Chen, R. W., & Chan, K. K. (2019). Using augmented reality flashcards to learn vocabulary in early childhood education. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 57(7), 1812-1831.

Cheng, K. H. (2017a). Exploring parents’ conceptions of augmented reality learning and approaches to learning by augmented reality with their children. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 55(6), 820-843.

Cheng, K. H. (2017b). Reading an augmented reality book: An exploration of learners’ cognitive load, motivation, and attitudes. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 33(4).

Cheng, K. H. (2019). Parents’ user experiences of augmented reality book reading: perceptions, expectations, and intentions. Educational Technology Research and Development, 67(2), 303-315.

Cheng, K. H., & Tsai, C. C. (2016). The interaction of child–parent shared reading with an augmented reality (AR) picture book and parents’ conceptions of AR learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 47(1), 203-222.

Cihak, D. F., Moore, E. J., Wright, R. E., McMahon, D. D., Gibbons, M. M., & Smith, C. (2016). Evaluating augmented reality to complete a chain task for elementary students with autism. Journal of Special Education Technology, 31(2), 99-108.

Çelik, M. Y. (2012). Boyutları ve farklı algılarıyla küreselleşme. Dumlupınar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 32(2), 57-73.

Çetin, H. (2020). Arttırılmış gerçeklı̇k temellı̇ hı̇kayelerı̇n okuma becerı̇lerı̇ üzerı̇ndekı̇ etkı̇sı̇: bı̇çı̇mlendı̇rı̇cı̇ deney araş tırması. Doktora Tezi, Gazi Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Ankara.

Danaei-Moghadam, D., Jamali, H. R., Mansourian, Y., & Rastegarpour, H. (2019). The Influence of Augmented Reality Storybook on Children’s Reading Comprehension. National Studies on Librarianship and Information Organization, 29(4), 27-42.

Danaei-Moghadam, D., Jamali, R. H., Mansourian, Y. and Rastegarpour, H. (2020). Comparing reading comprehension between children reading augmented reality and print storybooks. Computer and Education, 153.

Demitriadou, E., Stavroulia, K. E., & Lanitis, A. (2020). Comparative evaluation of virtual and augmented reality for teaching mathematics in primary education. Education and information technologies, 25(1), 381-401.

Dufva, T., & Dufva, M. (2019). Grasping the future of the digital society. Futures, 107, 17–28.

Efstathiou, I., Kyza, E. A., & Georgiou, Y. (2018). An inquiry-based augmented reality mobile learning approach to fostering primary school students’ historical reasoning in non-formal settings. Interactive Learning Environments, 26(1), 22-41.

Radu, F., Radu, V., & Croitoru, G. (2011, February). The advantage of the new technologies in learning. In Proceedings of the 10th WSEAS international conference on Artificial intelligence, knowledge engineering and data bases (pp. 150-155).

Garzon, J., Pavon, J., & Baldiris, S. (2017). Augmented reality applications for education: Five directions for future research. Lecture Notes in Computer Science.

Hansen, R., & Froelich, M. (1994). Defining technology and technological education: A crisis, or cause for celebration? International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 4(2), 179-207.

Hossain, M. J., & Ahmed, T. (2021). Augmented Reality-Based Elementary Level Education for Bengali Character Familiarization. SN Computer Science, 2(1), 1-9.

Howorth, S. K., Rooks-Ellis, D., Flanagan, S., & Ok, M. W. (2019). Augmented reality supporting reading skills of students with autism spectrum disorder. Intervention in School and Clinic, 55(2), 71-77.

Hsu, H. P., Wenting, Z., & Hughes, J. E. (2019). Developing elementary students’ digital literacy through augmented reality creation: Insights from a longitudinal analysis of questionnaires, interviews, and projects. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 57(6), 1400-1435.

Hsu, T. C. (2017). Learning English with augmented reality: Do learning styles matter? Computers & Education, 106, 137-149.

Hung, Y. H., Chen, C. H., & Huang, S. W. (2017). Applying augmented reality to enhance learning: a study of different teaching materials. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 33(3), 252-266.

Hwang, G. J., Wu, P. H., Chen, C. C., & Tu, N. T. (2016). Effects of an augmented reality-based educational game on students’ learning achievements and attitudes in real-world observations. Interactive Learning Environments, 24(8), 1895-1906.

Ibili, E., Resnyansky, D., & Billinghurst, M. (2019). Applying the technology acceptance model to understand maths teachers’ perceptions towards an augmented reality tutoring system. Education and Information Technologies, 24(5), 2653-2675.

Johnson, L., Levine, A., Smith, R., & Stone, S. (2010). Simple augmented reality. The 2010 Horizon Report, 21-24. Austin, TX: The New Media Consortium.

Kapur, R. (2019). Advantages of technology. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/333395640_Advantages_of_Technology sayfasından eriş ilmiş tir.

Karataş, Z. (2015). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri. Manevi Temelli Sosyal Hizmet Araştırmaları Dergisi, 1(1), 62-80.

Kıral, B. (2020). Nitel bir veri analizi yöntemi olarak doküman analizi. Siirt Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 8(15), 170-189.

Kumpulainen, K., Byman, J., Renlund, J., & Wong, C. C. (2020). Children’s Augmented Storying in, with and for Nature. Education Sciences, 10(6), 149.

Lai, A. F., Chen, C. H., & Lee, G. Y. (2019). An augmented reality‐based learning approach to enhancing students’ science reading performances from the perspective of the cognitive load theory. British Journal of Educational Technology, 50(1), 232-247.

Laine, T. H., Nygren, E., Dirin, A., & Suk, H. J. (2016). Science Spots AR: a platform for science learning games with augmented reality. Educational Technology Research and Development, 64(3), 507-531.

Leung, S. W., & Blauw, F. F. (2020). An augmented reality approach to delivering a connected digital forensics training experience. In K. J. Kim, H. Y. Kim (Eds.), Information Science and Application (pp. 353-361). Springer.

Lin, H. C. K., Chen, M. C., & Chang, C. K. (2015). Assessing the effectiveness of learning solid geometry by using an augmented reality-assisted learning system. Interactive Learning Environments, 23(6), 799-810.

Lin, H. C. K., Hsieh, M. C., Wang, C. H., Sie, Z. Y., & Chang, S. H. (2011). Establishment and Usability Evaluation of an Interactive AR Learning System on Conservation of Fish. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, 10(4), 181-187.

Liou, H. H., Yang, S. J., Chen, S. Y., & Tarng, W. (2017). The influences of the 2D image-based augmented reality and virtual reality on student learning. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 20(3), 110-121.

Lubis, A. H., & Wangid, M. N. (2019, April). Augmented Reality-Assisted Pictorial Storybook: Media to Enhance Discipline Character of Primary School Students. In Elementary School Forum (Mimbar Sekolah Dasar) (Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 11-20). Indonesia University of Education. Jl. Mayor Abdurachman No. 211, Sumedang, Jawa Barat, 45322, Indonesia. Web site: https://ejournal. upi. edu/index. php/mimbar/index.

Meletiou-Mavrotheris, M., Carrilho, A. R., Charalambous, C., Mavrou, K., & Christou, C. (2020). Teacher Training for ‘Augmented Reading’: The Living Book Approach and Initial Results. Education Sciences, 10(5), 144.

Muliati, C. (2017). The students’ motivation in reading and reading interest of the fifth semester students of Iain Palangka Raya.

Mundy, M. A., Hernandez, J., & Green, M. (2019). Perceptions of the Effects of Augmented Reality in the Classroom. Journal of Instructional Pedagogies, 22, 1-15.

Muñoz-Cristóbal, J. A., Prieto, L. P., Asensio-Pérez, J. I., Martínez-Monés, A., Jorrín-Abellán, I. M., & Dimitriadis, Y. (2015). Coming down to Earth: Helping teachers use 3D virtual worlds in across-spaces learning situations. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 18(1), 13-26.

Nersesian, E.; Spryszynski, A.; Lee, M.J. Integration of Virtual Reality in Secondary STEM Education. In Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE Integrated STEM Education Conference (ISEC), Princeton, NJ, USA, 16 March 2019; pp. 83–90.

Pombo, L., & Marques, M. M. (2020). The potential educational value of mobile augmented reality games: The case of EduPARK app. Education Sciences, 10(10), 287.

Ponners, P. J., & Piller, Y. (2019). Investigating the impact of augmented reality on elementary students’ mental model of scientists. TechTrends, 63(1), 33-40.

Rensink, C. Global competence for today and the future. Child. Educ. 2020, 96, 14–21.

Sasvari, P. (2012). The role of technology and innovation in the framework of the information society. International Journal of Advanced Research in Artificial Intelligence, 1(2), 32-38.

Skobelev, P.O.; Borovik, S.Y. On the way from Industry 4.0 to Industry 5.0: From digital manufacturing to digital society. Ind. 4.0 2017, 2, 307–311.

Solak, E., & Cakir, R. (2016). Investigating the role of augmented reality technology in the language classroom. Croatian Journal of Education, 18(4), 1067-1085.

Sünger, İ. & Çankaya, S. (2019). Augmented reality: historical development and area of usage. Journal of Educational Technology and Online Learning, 2(3), 118-133.

Tobar-Muñoz, H., Baldiris, S., & Fabregat, R. (2017). Augmented reality game-based learning: Enriching students’ experience during reading comprehension activities. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 55(7), 901-936.

Toledo-Morales, P., & Sanchez-Garcia, J. M. (2018). Use of augmented reality in social sciences as educational resource. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 19(3), 38-52.

Trust, T., Woodruff, N., Checrallah, M., & Whalen, J. (2021). Educators’ Interests, Prior Knowledge and Questions Regarding Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality and 3D Printing and Modeling. TechTrends, 1-14.

Ucelli, G., Conti, G., Amicis, R. D., & Servidio, R. (2005, November). Learning using augmented reality technology: multiple means of interaction for teaching children the theory of colours. In International Conference on Intelligent Technologies for Interactive Entertainment (pp. 193-202). Springer.

Wach, E., & Ward, R. (2013). Learning about qualitative document analysis.

Wahyu, Y., Suastra, I. W., Sadia, I. W., & Suarni, N. K. (2020). The Effectiveness of Mobile Augmented Reality Assisted Stem-Based Learning on Scientific Literacy and Students’ Achievement. International Journal of Instruction, 13(3), 343-356.

Wang, Y. H. (2020). Integrating Games, e-Books and AR Techniques to Support Project-based Science Learning. Educational Technology & Society, 23(3), 53-67.

Wen, Y. (2019). An Augmented Paper Game with Socio-Cognitive Support. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, 13(2), 259-268.

Wen, Y. (2020). Augmented reality enhanced cognitive engagement: designing classroom-based collaborative learning activities for young language learners. Educational Technology Research and Development, 1-18.

Wigfield, A. & Guthrie, T. J. (1997). Relations of children’s motivation for reading to the amount and breadth of their reading. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89(3), 420-432.

Winarni, E. W., & Purwandari, E. P. (2019). The Effectiveness of Turtle Mobile Learning Application for Scientific Literacy in Elementary School. Journal of Education and e-Learning Research, 6(4), 156-161.

Wu, H. K., Lee, S. W. Y., Chang, H. Y., & Liang, J. C. (2013). Current status, opportunities and challenges of augmented reality in education. Computers & education, 62, 41-49

Wu, P. H., Hwang, G. J., Yang, M. L., & Chen, C. H. (2018). Impacts of integrating the repertory grid into an augmented reality-based learning design on students’ learning achievements, cognitive load and degree of satisfaction. Interactive Learning Environments, 26(2), 221-234.

Yıldırım, A. & Şimşek, H. (2013). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri. Seçkin Yayıncılık.

Yuen, S., Yaoyuneyong, G., & Johnson, E. (2011). Augmented reality: An overview and five directions for AR in education. Journal of Educational Technology Development and Exchange, 4, 119–140.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijels.v.10n.2p.110


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2022 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies  

You may require to add the 'aiac.org.au' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.