Explaining Middle School Students’ Mathematical Literacy with Sources of Self-Efficacy, Achievement Expectation from Family, Peers and Teachers

Hakkı Kontaş, Bahadır Özcan


The promotion of mathematical literacy depends on understanding the variables associated with mathematics learning. The purpose of the current research was to explore relationships between mathematics achievement with sources of mathematics self-efficacy and perceived mathematics achievement expectations of parents, teachers, and friends in middle school students. Participants of the research were 332 8th grade middle school students. The research findings showed that mastery experience, social persuasions, and family expectations significantly predicted mathematics achievement. Furthermore, the most powerful predictor of mathematics achievement was the mastery experience. In conclusion, mastery experience and social persuasions dimensions of sources of self-efficacy and mathematics achievement expectations from parents have associated effects on mathematics achievement.


Self-efficacy, achievement expectation, mathematics achievement, parents, middle school

Full Text:



Alexandrov, A. (2010). Characteristics of single-item measures in Likert scale format. The Electronic Journal of Business Methods Research, 8 (1), 1-12.

Altermatt, E. R., & Pomerantz, E. M. (2005). The implications of having high-achieving versus low-achieving friends: A longitudinal analysis. Social Development, 14(1), 61-81. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2005.00291.x

Arslan, A. (2012). Predictive power of the sources of primary school students’ self-efficacy beliefs on their self-efficacy belief for learning and performance. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 12(3), 1915-1920.

Arslan, A. (2013). Investigation of the relationship between sources of self-efficacy beliefs of secondary school students and some variables. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 13(4), 1983-1993.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Prentice-Hall.

Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V.S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4. pp.71-81). Academic Press.

Bandura, A. (1995). Self-efficacy in changing societies. Cambridge University Press.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. Freeman.

Benner, A. D., & Mistry, R. S. (2007). Congruence of mother and teacher educational expectations and low-income youth’s academic competence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(1), 140-153. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.99.1.140

Bleeker, M. M., & Jacobs, J. E. (2004). Achievement in math and science: Do mothers’ beliefs matter 12 years later? Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(1), 97-109. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.96.1.97

Bowen, G. L., Rose, R. A., Powers, J. D., & Glennie, E. J. (2008). The joint effects of neighborhoods, schools, peers, and families on changes in the school success of middle school students. Family Relations, 57(4), 504-516. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3729.2008.00518.x

Britner, S. L., & Pajares, F. (2006). Sources of science self-efficacy beliefs of middle school students. Journal of Research in Science Teaching: The Official Journal of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, 43(5), 485-499. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.20131

Brown, S. D., & Lent, R. W. (2006). Preparing adolescents to make career decisions: A social cognitive perspective. In F. Pajares & T. Urdan (Eds.), Adolescence and education: Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents (Vol. 5, pp. 201-223). Information Age.

Callejo, M. L., & Vila, A. (2009). Approach to mathematical problem solving and students’ belief systems: Two case studies. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 72, 111-126. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10649-009-9195-z

Chen, W. B., & Gregory, A. (2009). Parental involvement as a protective factor during the transition to high school. The Journal of Educational Research, 103(1), 53-62. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220670903231250

Crosnoe, R., Cavanagh, S., & Elder Jr, G. H. (2003). Adolescent friendships as academic resources: The intersection of friendship, race, and school disadvantage. Sociological Perspectives, 46(3), 331-352. https://doi.org/10.1525/sop.2003.46.3.331

Fast, L. A., Lewis, J. L., Bryant, M. J., Bocian, K. A., Cardullo, R. A., Rettig, M., & Hammond, K. A. (2010). Does math self-efficacy mediate the effect of the perceived classroom environment on standardized math test performance? Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(3), 729-740. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018863

Flouri, E., & Hawkes, D. (2008). Ambitious mothers-successful daughters: Mothers’ early expectations for children’s education and children’s earnings and sense of control in adult life. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 78(3), 411-433. https://doi.org/10.1348/000709907X251280

Gruman, J. A., Schneider, F. W., & Coutts, L. M. (Eds.). (2017). Applied social psychology: understanding and addressing social and practical problems. Sage Publications.

Hafner, E. W. (2008). The relationship between math anxiety, math self-efficacy, and achievement (Publication No. 3297270) [Doctoral dissertation, Capella University]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2014). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Pearson Education Limited.

Hall, J. M., & Ponton, M. K. (2005). Mathematics self-efficacy of college freshman. Journal of Developmental Education, 28(3), 26-32.

Hampton, N. Z., & Mason, E. (2003). Learning disabilities, gender, sources of efficacy, self-efficacy beliefs, and academic achievement in high school students. Journal of School Psychology, 41(2), 101-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4405(03)00028-1

Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 81-112. https://doi.org/10.3102/003465430298487

Hinnant, J. B., O’Brien, M., & Ghazarian, S. R. (2009). The longitudinal relations of teacher expectations to achievement in the early school years. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(3), 662-670. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014306

Kağıtçıbaşı, Ç. (2017). Family, self, and human development across cultures theory and applications family, self, and human development across cultures: theory and applications. Taylor & Francis.

Keşan, C., & Kaya, D. (2018). Mathematics and science self-efficacy resources as the predictor of academic success. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 10(2), 45-58. https://doi.org/10.15345/iojes.2018.02.004

Kindermann, T. A. (2007). Effects of naturally existing peer groups on changes in academic engagement in a cohort of sixth graders. Child Development, 78(4), 1186-1203. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01060.x

Klassen, R. M. (2004). A cross-cultural investigation of the efficacy beliefs of South Asian immigrant and Anglo Canadian nonimmigrant early adolescents. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(4), 731-742. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.96.4.731

Kontaş, H., & Özcan, B. (2017). Adapting sources of middle school mathematics self-efficacy scale to Turkish culture. The International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 6(4), 288-294. https://doi.org/10.11591/ijere.v6i4.10771

Loo, C. W., & Choy, J. L. F. (2013). Sources of self-efficacy influencing academic performance of engineering students. American Journal of Educational Research, 1(3), 86-92. https://doi.org/10.12691/education-1-3-4

Ministry of National Education (MoNE). (2016). E-manual of 2016-2017 academic year common exams. Retrieved from https://www.meb.gov.tr/meb_iys_dosyalar/2016_10/07062150_20162017retimylortaksnavlareklavuzu.pdf

Ministry of National Education (MoNE). (2017). 2016-2017 Eğitim öğretim yılı II. dönem merkezi ortak sınavı test ve madde istatistikleri. Retrieved from https://odsgm.meb.gov.tr/meb_iys_dosyalar/2017_06/12171001_2017_2.doYnem_Merkezi_Ortak_SYnavY_genel_bilgiler_raporu_12.06.2017.pdf

Multon, K. D., Brown, S. D., & Lent, R. W. (1991). Relation of self-efficacy beliefs to academic outcomes: A meta-analytic investigation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38(1), 30-38.

Neuenschwander, M. P., Vida, M., Garrett, J. L., & Eccles, J. S. (2007). Parents’ expectations and students’ achievement in two western nations. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31(6), 594-602. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0165025407080589

OECD (2019). “PISA 2018 Mathematics Framework”, in PISA 2018 Assessment and Analytical Framework, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/13c8a22c-en

Özcan, B., & Kontaş, H. (2020). Investigating relationship between mathematics achievement and sources of mathematics self-efficacy in high school students (Lise öğrencilerinde matematik başarısı ile matematik öz-yetkinlik kaynakları arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi). Cumhuriyet International Journal of Education, 9(3), 800-819. http://dx.doi.org/10.30703/cije.653089

Özcan, B., & Kültür, Y. Z. (2021). The relationship between sources of mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics test and course achievement in high school seniors. SAGE Open, 11(3), 21582440211040124. https://doi.org/10.1177/21582440211040124

Pajares, F., Johnson, M. J., & Usher, E. L. (2007). Sources of writing self-efficacy beliefs of elementary, middle, and high school students. Research in the Teaching of English, 42(1), 104-120. Retrieved April 17, 2019, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40171749

Pajares, F., & Kranzler, J. (1995). Self-efficacy beliefs and general mental ability in mathematical problem-solving. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 20(4), 426-443. https://doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1995.1029

Pajares, F., & Miller, M. D. (1994). The role of self-efficacy and self-concept beliefs in mathematical problem solving: A path analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86(2), 193-203. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.86.2.193

Phan, H. P. (2012a). Informational sources, self-efficacy and achievement: A temporally displaced approach. Educational Psychology, 32(6), 699-726. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2012.708320

Phan, H. P. (2012b). Relations between informational sources, self-efficacy and academic achievement: A developmental approach. Educational Psychology, 32(1), 81-105. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2011.625612

Phan, H. P., & Ngu, B. H. (2016). Sources of self-efficacy in academic contexts: A longitudinal perspective. School Psychology Quarterly, 31(4), 548-564.

Portes, A. (1998). Social capital: Its origins and applications in modern sociology. Annual Review of Sociology, 24(1), 1-24.

Prihadi, K., Hairul, N. I., & Hazri, J. (2012). Mediation effect of Locus of control on the casual relationship between students’ perceived teachers’ expectancy and self-esteem. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 10(2), 713-736.

Radday, E. A. (2010). Student’s self-efficacy in high school mathematics: A cross case analysis. (Publication No. 3421856) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

Rubie-Davies, C. M., Peterson, E., Irving, E., Widdowson, D., & Dixon, R. (2010). Expectations of achievement: Student teacher and parent perceptions. Research in Education, 83(1), 36-53. https://doi.org/10.7227/RIE.83.4

Rubin, K., Bukowski, W., & Parker, J. (2006). Peers, relationships, and interactions. In W. Damon & R. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (pp. 571-645). Wiley.

Ryan, A. M. (2001). The peer group as a context for the development of young adolescent motivation and achievement. Child Development, 72(4), 1135-1150. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00338

Schunk, D. H., & Usher, E. L. (2012). Social cognitive theory and motivation. In R. M. Ryan, R. M. Ryan (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of human motivation (pp. 13-27). Oxford University Press.

Schweinle, A., & Mims, G. A. (2009). Mathematics self-efficacy: Stereotype threat versus resilience. Social Psychology of Education, 12(4), 501-514. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11218-009-9094-2

Skaalvik, E. M., Federici, R. A., & Klassen, R. M. (2015). Mathematics achievement and self-efficacy: Relations with motivation for mathematics. International Journal of Educational Research, 72, 129-136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2015.06.008

Sorhagen, N. S. (2013). Early teacher expectations disproportionately affect poor children’s high school performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(2), 465-477. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031754

Turner, S. L., Steward, J. C., & Lapan, R. T. (2004). Family factors associated with sixth‐grade adolescents’ math and science career interests. The Career Development Quarterly, 53(1), 41-52. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-0045.2004.tb00654.x

Usher, E. L., & Pajares, F. (2006a). Inviting confidence in school: Invitations as a critical source of the academic self-efficacy beliefs of entering middle school students. Journal of Invitational Theory and Practice, 12, 7-16.

Usher, E. L., & Pajares, F. (2006b). Sources of academic and self-regulatory efficacy beliefs of entering middle school students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 31(2), 125-141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2005.03.002

Usher, E. L., & Pajares, F. (2008). Sources of self-efficacy in school: Critical review of the literature and future directions. Review of Educational Research, 78(4), 751-796. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654308321456

Usher, E. L., & Pajares, F. (2009). Sources of self-efficacy in mathematics: A validation study. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34(1), 89-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2008.09.002

Uskul, A. K., Hynie, M., & Lalonde, R. N. (2004). Interdependence as a mediator between culture and interpersonal closeness for Euro-Canadians and Turks. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 35(2), 174-191. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022103262243

Wanous, J.P., Reichers, A.E., & Hudy, M.J. (1997). Overall job satisfaction: How good are single-item measures? Journal of Applied Psychology, 82 (2), 247-252. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.82.2.247

Williams, T., & Williams, K. (2010). Self-efficacy and performance in mathematics: Reciprocal determinism in 33 nations. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(2), 453-466. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017271

Youngblut, J.M., & Casper, G.R. (1993). Focus on psychometrics: Single-item indicators in nursing research. Research in Nursing and Health, 16 (6), 459-465. https://doi.org/10.1002/nur.4770160610

Zimmerman, B. J. (2008). Investigating self-regulation and motivation: Historical background, methodological developments, and future prospects. American Educational Research Journal, 45(1), 166-183. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831207312909

Zimmerman, B. J., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1990). Student differences in self-regulated learning: Relating grade, sex, and giftedness to self-efficacy and strategy use. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 51-59. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.82.1.51

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijels.v.10n.1p.198


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2022 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies  

You may require to add the 'aiac.org.au' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.