Equity vs. Ethic Literacy – Socio-Educational Dilemma in the Case of Pandemic Finland, Autumn 2020

Jyrki Loima

Abstract


This case study aimed to comprehend socio-educational policy in the light of pandemic ethic literacy in Finland. Consequently, methodologically the official, public, and ethic research data were triangulated to analyze the Ministry’s understanding on educational equity in Finland. Discussion involved global pandemic ethic principles (transparency, participation, review and revisability). Hermeneutic methodology revealed imbalances. Ministry of Education and Culture failed regionally, as well as qualitatively, in its quantitative by-the-book policy. As the main finding, pandemic ethics were generally ignored by the Ministry. Ethic principles were not recognized – or were neglected. Furthermore, Ministry’s decision-making was unconditional, instead of being participatory and revising. Lacking transparency was revealed in rhetoric of “several” children, or probable “likelihood”, without argumentation. However, the policy could have been revisable with increasing evidence. Epistemic imbalances and hermeneutic injustice occurred regionally and qualitatively. Those involved all, both the vulnerable, and gifted pupils. Finally, the policy created inequity, adding ageist and racist elements in southern country. Moreover, the Ministry repeatedly acted against its vision. While Ministers, and responsible authorities, should update their “hidden” curriculum, regional policies and Covid-19 variants deserve further studies.

Keywords


Pandemic Ethics, Socio-educational Policy, Basic Education, Equity, Hermeneutic Justice, Epistemic Injustice

Full Text:

PDF

References


Act 621/1999. On the openness of Government activities (1999). https://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/kaannokset/1999/en19990621

Act 1112/1978. On the teaching spaces of Finnish schools (1978). Suomen Säädöskokoelma.

Altistumiset.fi. (n.d.). Altistumiset [Exposures in Finland. Webpages for the exposure data collected by anonymous volunteers and Miracle Finland Co.]. Retrieved January 23, 2021, from https://altistumiset.fi/

Andersson, L. (2020). Oppimisen iloa myös epävarmuuden aikana [Joy of learning also in uncertain times]. https://minedu.fi/-/opetusministeri-li-andersson-oppimisen-iloa-myos-epavarmuuden-aikana

Andersson, L. (n.d.). (@lianderson). Tweets August 5, 2020 – December 31, 2020.

Basic Education Act. (1998). https://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1998/en19980628.pdf

Bramble, B. (2020). Pandemic ethics. 8 big questions of covid-19 [e-book edition]. Bartleby Books. https://philpapers.org/archive/BRAPE-7.pdf

Breslin, T. (2021). Lessons from lockdown. Routledge.

Briggs, D., Ellis, A., Lloyd, A. & Telford, L. (2020). "New hope or old futures in disguise? Neoliberalism, the Covid-19 pandemic and the possibility for social change". International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 40(9/10), 831-848. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJSSP-07-2020-0268, 40(9/10), 831-848. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJSSP-07-2020-0268

Capron, A.M. (2007). Ethical Issues in Pandemic Planning and Response. In S.M. Lemon, M.A. Hamburg, P.F. Sparling, E.R. Choffness & A. Mack, (eds). Ethical and Legal Considerations in Mitigating Pandemic Disease: Workshop Summary [e-book edition] (pp.154-201). National Academies Press. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK54169/

CDC. (2021, February 12). Science brief: Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in K-12 Schools. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/more/science-and-research/transmission_k_12_schools.html#print

City of Vaasa. (Vaasan kaupunki, 2021a, January 12). Koronaan liittyvät rajoitukset ja toimenpiteet Vaasassa. [Covid restrictions in Vaasa]. https://www.vaasa.fi/asu-ja-ela/terveys-ja-hyvinvointi/tietoa-koronaviruksesta/koronaan-liittyvat-rajoitukset-ja-toimenpiteet-vaasassa/

City of Vaasa. (Vaasan kaupunki, 2021b, January 25). Koronaan liittyvät rajoitukset ja toimenpiteet Vaasassa [Covid restrictions in Vaasa]. https://www.vaasa.fi/asu-ja-ela/terveys-ja-hyvinvointi/tietoa-koronaviruksesta/koronaan-liittyvat-rajoitukset-ja-toimenpiteet-vaasassa/

Claeson, M., & Hanson, S. (2020). Covid-19 and the Swedish enigma. The Lancet, 397(10271), 259-261.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32750-1

Constitution of Finland. (1999). https://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1999/en19990731.pdf

Copenhagen Post. (2021, January 13). Here we go again. COVID-19 restrictions further extended. https://cphpost.dk/?p=121808

Crawford, R. (2017). Rethinking teaching and learning pedagogy for education in the twenty-first century: Blended learning in music education. Music Education Research, 19(2), 195-213. https://doi.org/10.1080/14613808.2016.1202223

Darling-Hammond, L., Edgerton, A.K., Truong, N., Cookson Jnr, P.W. (2020). Restarting and reinventing school: Learning in the time of COVID and beyond. Learning Policy Institute. https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/product-files/Restart_Reinvent_Schools_COVID_Priority2_Distance_Learning.pdf

Darling-Hammond, L. (2010). New policies for 21st century demands. In J. Bellanca, & R. Brandt. (Eds.). 21st century skills: Rethinking how students learn (pp.33-49). Solution Tree Press.

Davies, N., Barnard, C., Jarvis, C. I., Kucharski, A.J., Munday, J., Pearson, C. A., Russell, T. W., Tully, D. C., Abbott, S., Gimma, A., Waites, W., Wong, K. L. M., & Zandvoort, K. (2021). Estimated transmissibility and severity of novel SARS-CoV-2 Variant of Concern 202012/01 in England. medRxiv 2020.12.24.20248822. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.12.24.20248822

Dowling, M. (2004). Hermeneutics: an exploration. Nurse Researcher, 11(4), 30-39. https://dx.doi.org/10.7748/nr2004.07.11.4.30.c6213

Dede, C. (2010). Comparing frameworks for 21st century skills. In J. Bellanca, & R. Brandt (eds.), 21st Century Skills: Rethinking how students learn (pp. 51-75). Solution Tree Press.

Dub, T., Erra, E., Hagberg, L., Sarvikivi, E., Virta, C., Järvinen, A., Österlund, P., Ikonen, N., Haveri, A., Melin, M. Lukkarinen, T., & Nohynek, H. (2020). Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 following exposure in school settings: Experience from two Helsinki area exposure incidents. medRxiv 2020.07.20.20156018. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.20.20156018

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. (2020a, August 6). Covid-19 in children and the role of school settings in transmission. https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/children-and-school-settings-covid-19-transmission

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. (2020b, August 20). Covid-19 in children and the role of school settings in transmission. https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/children-and-school-settings-covid-19-transmission

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. (2020c, December 23). Covid in children and the role of school settings in transmission. Technical report. https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/children-and-school-settings-covid-19-transmission

European Group on Ethics and Science. (2020, June 24). Joined statement on scientific advice to European policy makers in the fight against Covid-19 […]. https://ec.europa.eu/info/news/joint-statement-scientific-advice-european-policy-makers-fight-against-covid-19-pandemic-2020-jun-24_enc

Expressen. (2020, January 12). Pandemilagens innehåll - föreskrifter kan anpassas till regional nivån [Pandemic Act contents – restrictions could be adjusted regionally]. https://www.expressen.se/tv/nyheter/coronaviruset/pandemilagens-innehall-foreskrifterna-kan-anpassas-till-regional-niva/

Finnish Education Evaluation Center. (2020, December 14). Mitä poikkeukselliset opetusjärjestelyt opettivat? [Lessons learned from exceptional teaching arrangements]. PDF slide set. https://karvi.fi/app/uploads/2020/12/Poikkeustilanteen-vaikutusten-arviointi-tulokset.pdf

Finnish National Agency of Education. (2021, January 20). Perusopetuksen järjestäminen 1.1.2021 [Organizing basic education 1.1.2021 onwards]. https://www.oph.fi/fi/koulutus-ja-tutkinnot/perusopetuksen-jarjestaminen-112021-alkaen#c9d7b248

Finnish National Agency of Education. (2020a, August 13). New school year began with contact teaching. https://www.oph.fi/en/news/2020/new-school-year-began-contact-teaching

Finnish National Agency of Education. (2020b, September 10). Noin 4000 yläluokkalaisella jatkuvasti paljon poissaoloja koulusta [Approximately 4,000 basic education upper grade pupils have constant absenteeism from school]. https://www.oph.fi/fi/uutiset/2020/noin-4000-ylakoululaisella-jatkuvasti-paljon-poissaoloja-koulusta

Finnish National Agency of Education. (2018). Finnish education in a nutshell. https://www.oph.fi/sites/default/files/documents/finnish_education_in_a_nutshell.pdf

Finnish National Core Curriculum. (2014). https://peda.net/jyu/okl/ainepeda/fncc

Finnish Institute of Health and Welfare. (2021a, January 14). Varmistetut koronatapaukset Suomessa [Confirmed corona cases in Finland]. https://experience.arcgis.com/experience/d40b2aaf08be4b9c8ec38de30b714f26

Finnish Institute of Health and Welfare. (2021b, January 25). Confirmed Corona cases in Finland (Covid-19) [including the open data]. https://thl.fi/en/web/thlfi-en/statistics/statistical-databases/open-data/confirmed-corona-cases-in-finland-covid-19-

Finnish Institute of Health and Welfare. (2021c, January 11). Situation update on coronavirus infections in schools. https://thl.fi/en/web/infectious-diseases-and-vaccinations/what-s-new/coronavirus-covid-19-latest-updates/situation-update-on-coronavirus/coronavirus-infections-in-schools

Finnish Institute of Health and Welfare. (n.d.). (@THLresearch). Tweets July 25, 2020 - January 30, 2021.

Folkhälsomyndigheten. (2020, July 7). Covid-19 in schoolchildren: A comparison between Finland and Sweden. https://www.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/contentassets/c1b78bffbfde4a7899eb0d8ffdb57b09/covid-19-school-aged-children.pdf

Folkhälsomyndigheten. (2021). Antal fall av Covid 19 i Sverige [Healt Authorities: Covid-19 cases in Sweden]. https://experience.arcgis.com/experience/09f821667ce64bf7be6f9f87457ed9aa

Fricker, M. (2007). Epistemic injustice: Power and the ethics of knowing. Oxford University Press.

Fricker, M. (2013). Epistemic justice as a condition of political freedom? Synthese, 190(7), 1317–1332, http://www.jstor.org/stable/41931810

Gardner, H. (2000). The disciplined mind: Beyond facts and standardized tests: The K-12 education that every child deserves. Penguin books.

Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. Basic books.

Gestrin-Hagner, M. (2021, March 2). Muterat virus märks på sjukhusen, fler yngre blir svårt sjuka - chefsöverläkare will ha utegångsförbud [Mutant virus noted at hospitals, several young people seriously sick – senior chief MD suggests curfew for nighttime]. https://www.hbl.fi/artikel/muterat-virus-marks-pa-sjukhusen-fler-yngre-blir-svart-sjuka/

Gordon, D. (2006). The concept of the hidden curriculum. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 16, 187-198. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9752.1982.tb00611.x

Grolnick, W. S., Kurowski, C. O., & Gurland, S. T. (1999). Family processes and the development of children’s self-regulation. Educational Psychologist, 34(1), (3–14). https://selfdeterminationtheory.org/SDT/documents/1999_GrolnickKurowskiGurland_EP.pdf

Harris, J. (1987). QALYfying the value of life. Journal of Medical Ethics, 13(3), 117-123. https://jme.bmj.com/content/13/3/117

Heinonen, O. P. (n.d.). (@heino1olli). Tweets August 10 – December 21, 2020.

Helsingin Sanomat. (2020, August 10- December 18). Lukijan mielipide [Readers’ Opinion]. www.hs.fi

Helsinki City. (2020). Schools and daycare. https://www.hel.fi/helsinki/coronavirus-en/childhood-and

Helsinki City. (2021, January 25). Situation update in Coronavirus. https://www.hel.fi/helsinki/coronavirus-en/social-and-health/corona-situation

Hyvärinen, E. (2020). Lääkärit IS:lle ja IL:lle: hallitus vie Suomea Ruotsin tielle [Net News: Doctors to newspapers IS and IL: Government guides Finland to the Swedish way]. https://www.verkkouutiset.fi/laakarit-islle-ja-illle-hallitus-vie-suomea-ruotsin-tielle/#407d6173

Häyry, M. (2021). The COVID-19 Pandemic: Healthcare Crisis Leadership as Ethics Communication. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 30(1), 42-50. doi:10.1017/S0963180120000444

Kauppinen, A. (2018). Practical reasoning. In D. Star (ed.) The Oxford handbook of reasons and normativity( pp. 395-422). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199657889.013.18

Kissler, S.M., Tedijanto, C., Goldstein, E., Grad, Y. H. & Lipsitch, M. (2020). Projecting the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 through the postpandemic period. Science, 368(6493), 860-868. doi:10.1126/science.abb5793

Liiten, M. (2020, May 14). Näin etäkoulu sujui: Kymmenettuhannet suomalaislapset vastasivat kyselyyn, grafiikat näyttävät ilot ja murheet [This was how remote schooling worked: Tens of thousands of Finnish children replied, graphics indicated]. Helsingin Sanomat. https://www.hs.fi/politiikka/art-2000006506771.html

Liveriero, F. (2020). Epistemic Injustice in the Political Domain: Powerless Citizens and Institutional Reform. Ethic Theory Moral Practice, 23, 797–813. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10677-020-10097-w

Linnanmäki, E. (2006). Historian influenssapandemiat [Influenza pandemics in history]. Finnish Medical Journal Duodecim. https://www.duodecimlehti.fi/duo95933

Loima, J. (2020a). Innovation, Recreation, Interpretation? A Case Study on the Origins and Implementation of Transversal Core Competencies in Finnish Basic Education Core Curriculum Reform 2016. International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies, 8(1), 180-189. http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijels.v.8n.1p.180

Loima, J. (2020b). Socio-Educational Policies and Covid-19 – A Case Study on Finland and Sweden in the Spring 2020. International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies, 8(3), 59-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijels.v.8n.3p.59

Ludvigsson, J. F., Engerström, L., Nordehäll, C., & Larsson, E. (2021). Open schools, Covid-19, Child, and Teacher Morbidity in Sweden. New England Journal of Medicine, 384, 669-671.

doi:10.1056/NEJMc2026670

Lykkeskov, A. (2020). Ben Bramble, Pandemic Ethics - 8 Big Questions of COVID-19, (Bartleby Books), 2020. Ethic Theory Moral Prac 2020.https://doi.org/10.1007/s10677-020-10131-x

Megner Arn, A. (2021, January 18). Lärare mycker mer smittande ån andra [Teachers much more infected than others]. TV4. https://www.tv4.se/artikel/2GOCpM8MDn5tDIagY7Iv9W/laerare-mycket-mer-smittade-aen-oevriga-yrkesgrupper

Ministry of Education and Culture of Finland. (2020a, August 11). Ministeri Andersson: oppimisen iloa myös epävarmuuden aikana [Joy of learning also in uncertain times]. https://minedu.fi/-/opetusministeri-li-andersson-oppimisen-iloa-myos-epavarmuuden-aikana

Ministry of Education and Culture of Finland. (2020b, December 29). Yli 58 000 lasta ja nuorta vastasi valtakunnalliseen verkkokuulemiseen osana perusopetuslain valmistelua [More than 58,000 children and teenagers were audited as a part of BEA preparation]. https://minedu.fi/-/yli-58-000-lasta-ja-nuorta-vastasi-valtakunnalliseen-verkkokuulemiseen-osana-perusopetuslain-valmistelua

Ministry of Education and Culture of Finland. (2020c, February 24). Ministry of education and culture – Championing education and culture with knowledge, skills and feeling. https://julkaisut.valtioneuvosto.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/162388/OKM_Brochure_2020.pdf

Ministry of Education and Culture of Finland. (2020d). Kuntakysely: oppilashuollon palvelujen kysyntä on vähentynyt poikkeusolojen aikana [Municipality inquiry: Requests for student welfare services have declined during the state of emergency]. https://minedu.fi/artikkeli/-/asset_publisher/kuntakysely-oppilashuollon-palveluiden-tarjoaminen-on-vahentynyt-poikkeusolojen-aikana

Ministry of Health and Social Services of Finland. (2020). Lasten ja nuorten hyvinvointi koronakriisin jälkihoidossa: lapsistrategian koronatyöryhmän raportti lapsen oikeuksien toteutumisesta [Children’s and teenagers’ wellbeing in the post-corona crisis treatment: teamwork report on children’s rights implementation]. Valtioneuvoston julkaisuja [State Council Publications] 2020:21. http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-287-883-0

Ministry of Health and Social Services of Finland. (2021). Lapset, nuoret ja koronakriisi. Lapsistrategian koronakriisityöryhmän arvio ja esitykset lasten oikeuksien toteutumiseksi [Children, teenagers and corona crisis. Teamwork assessments and suggestions for children’s rights implementation]. Valtioneuvoston julkaisuja 2021:2. http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-383-674-7

Määttä, S.; Pelkonen, J.; Lehtisare, S.; & Määttä, M. (2020). Kouluakäymättömyys Suomessa [School absenteeism in Finland]. Reports and statements. FNAE 2020:9. https://www.oph.fi/sites/default/files/documents/kouluakaymattomyys_suomessa_0.pdf

Mörttinen, M. (2021). Valtioneuvoston ydin kriisitilanteessa. Covid-19 pandemian paineet suomalaiselle päätöksenteolle SITRAn muistio [The Nuclear State Council in Crisis management. Covid-19 pandemic pressures for Finnish decision-making. SITRA Memorandum]. https://www.sitra.fi/julkaisut/valtioneuvoston-ydin-kriisitilanteessa/

Nieminen, S. (2020). Asiantuntija uudesta koronastrategiasta: Suomi lähtenyt Ruotsin tielle [Expert on the new corona strategy: Finland follows the Swedish way]. https://www.is.fi/kotimaa/art-2000006499129.html

Niinimäki, E. (n.d.). General government expenditure on education in Finland. Retrieved January 20, 2021, from https://www.statista.com/statistics/538122/general-government-expenditure-on-education-in-finland/

OECD. 2020. Education and COVID-19: Focusing on the long-term impact of school closures. Retrieved January 18, 2021, from https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/policy-responses/education-and-covid-19-focusing-on-the-long-term-impact-of-school-closures-2cea926e/

Patton, M.Q. (2014). Qualitative research & evaluation methods: Integrating theory and practice. SAGE.

Peim, N. (2018). Thinking in educational research: Applying philosophy and theory. Bloomsbury.

Pihlström, S. (2021, March 5). Vakavuuden hämärtyminen saa asioiden tärkeysjärjestyksen unohtumaan. Etiikka-lehti [Obscurity in serious issues will lead to altered importances. Journal of Ethics]. https://etiikka.fi/vakavuuden-hamartyminen-saa-asioiden-tarkeysjarjestyksen-unohtumaan/

Pitkänen, E. (2020, December 4). Näistä syistä korona on riehunut erityisesti vieraskielisten keskuudessa [For these reasons Covid-19 had stormed among non-native speakers. MTV News]. https://www.mtvuutiset.fi/artikkeli/naista-syista-korona-on-riehunut-erityisesti-vieraskielisten-keskuudessa-pelko-levinnyt-taudin-mukana-tieto-ei-tarpeeksi/8002500#gs.u1tnka

Price, H. (2015). Idling and sidling toward philosophical peace. In S. Gross, N. Tebben, & M. Williams (eds). Meaning Without Representation: Essays on Truth, Expression, Normativity, and Naturalism (pp. 307-330). Oxford University Press.

Price, H. (2012). Causation, chance and the rational significance of supernatural evidence. Philosophical Review, 121(4), 483-538. http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/id/eprint/8983

Rogerson, S. (2021). Rebooting ethics education in the digital age. Academia Letters. https://www.academia.edu/44986988/Rebooting_ethics_education_in_the_digital_age?email_work_card=view-paper

Romsi, V., Akimo, M., & Valkama, V. (2020; August 6). Maskisuositus saa vielä odottaa – Varhila: "Suomella ei ole lainsäädännöllisiä keinoja ottaa käyttöön kansalaisten maskipakkoa" [Mask recommendation may wait – Finland has no legislative ways...]. https://www.satakunnankansa.fi/koronavirus/art-2000007067391.html

Sanoma Pro. (n.d.). Kotiopiskelu onnistuu digipalveluiden avulla [Home studies will succeed digitally]. Retrieved March 4, 2021, from https://www.sanomapro.fi/kotona-opiskelu-onnistuu-digipalveluiden-avulla/

Saramo, J. (n.d.). (@jussisaramo). Tweets December 16, 2020 – February 28, 2021.

Sivonen, J. (n.d.). (@hsivonen). Tweet February 22, 2021 [including the Helsinki City replies on 27.11.2020 updated school exposure criteria in Finnish].

State Council of Finland. (VN 2021, Jan 25). Government decides to supplement action plan for Covid-19 hybrid strategy. https://valtioneuvosto.fi/en/-//10616/government-decides-to-supplement-action-plan-for-covid-19-hybrid-strategy

Statistics Finland. (2020a). Special support in Finnish basic education 1993-2019. http://www.stat.fi/til/erop/2019/erop_2019_2020-06-05_tie_001_fi.html

Statistics Finland. (2020b). Regional numbers and teaching arrangements for special education students, 2011-2019. http://pxnet2.stat.fi/PXWeb/pxweb/fi/StatFin/StatFin__kou__erop/?tablelist=true

Statistics Finland. (2020c). Students and qualifications of educational institutions. https://www.tilastokeskus.fi/tup/suoluk/suoluk_koulutus_en.htmlc

The Local. (2021, Jan). “We are disappointed and frustrated:” Denmark’s reaction to delayed vaccine deliveries. https://www.thelocal.dk/20210116/we-are-disappointed-and-frustrated-denmarks-reaction-to-delayed-vaccine-deliveries

United Nations. (1948). Declaration of human rights. https://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/

Talouselämä. (2020, April 4), Koronaviruksen riskiryhmään kuuluu yli miljoona suomalaista [More than a million Finns belong to Covid-19 risk group. Economic Life paper]. https://www.talouselama.fi/uutiset/koronaviruksen-riskiryhmaan-kuuluu-yli-miljoona-suomalaista-nailla-alueilla-eniten-riskiryhmalaisia/88dfc363-7d3d-4a3b-9c41-843890978523

Teachers NN1-NN 11, Tweets August 5, 2020 – February 21, 2021.

The Office of the Councellor of Justice. (2020a, December 4). Ministeriöiden valmius suojavarusteiden hankinnan ja varastoinnin ohjauksessa ei ollut riittävää. [Media release: Ministries’ preparedness in PPE supplement measures wasn’t adequate]. https://www.okv.fi/fi/tiedotteet-ja-puheenvuorot/557/ministerioiden-valmius-suojainvarusteiden-hankinnan-ja-varastoinnin-ohjauksessa-uudenlaisessa-koronatilanteessa-ei-ollut-riittavaa/

The Office of the Councellor of Justice (2020b, October 20). Viranomaisten lentoasemilla tekemistä koronatorjuntatoimenpiteistä ratkaisu [Resolution on officials’ corona responses at airports]. https://www.okv.fi/fi/tiedotteet-ja-puheenvuorot/555/viranomaisten-lentoasemilla-tekemista-koronatorjuntatoimenpiteista-apulaisoikeuskanslerin-ratkaisu/

Vapaavuori, J. (n.d.) (@vapaavuori). Tweets, October 10, 2020 – February 22, 2021.

Vestergren, J. & Nielsen, R.D. (2021, January 13). TV2 erfarer: Regeringen vil förlaengre alle restriktioner frem til 7. februar [TV2: Government will continue all restrictions until Feb 7]. https://nyheder.tv2.dk/politik/2021-01-13-tv-2-erfarer-regeringen-vil-forlaenge-alle-restriktioner-frem-til-7-februar

Vlachos, J., Hertegård, E., & Svaleryd, H. B. (2021). The effects of school closures on SARS-CoV-2 among parents and teachers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(9). doi: 10.1073/pnas.2020834118

Vogel, G. (2021a, February 15). Keeping schools open without masks or quarantines doubled Swedish teachers’ COVID-19 risk. https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2021/02/keeping-schools-open-without-masks-or-quarantines-doubled-swedish-teachers-covid-19

Vogel, G. (2021b), March 2). Critics slam letter in prestigious journal that downplayed COVID-19 risks for schoolchildren. https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2021/03/critics-slam-letter-prestigious-journal-downplayed-covid-19-risks-swedish

United Nations. (1948). Universal declaration of human rights. https://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/

United Nations. (n.d.). Convention of the Rights of the Child. https://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Education/Training/Compilation/Pages/8ConventionontheRightsoftheChild(1989).aspx

WHO. (n.d.). Ethical issues in pandemic influenza planning. Retrieved January 10, 2021 from, https://www.who.int/ethics/influenza_project/en/

WHO. (2020). Guidelines for preparedness and response. https://openwho.org/courses/UNCT-COVID19-preparedness-and-response-EN

WHO. (2017). Pandemic influenza risk management. Global influenza programme. A WHO guide to inform and harmonize national and international pandemic preparedness and response. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/259893/WHO-WHE-IHM-GIP-2017.1-eng.pdf?sequence=1

You, L., Campbell, H., Kulkarni, D., Harpur, A., Madhurima, N., Wang, X., & Nair, H. (2020). The temporal association of introducing and lifting non-pharmaceutical interventions with the time-varying reproduction number (R) of SARS-CoV-2: a modelling study across 131 countries. The Lancet. Infectious Diseases, 21(2),193-2029. doi:doi.org/10.1016/S14733099(20)30785-4

YLE. (2021, February 17). Uusimmat tiedot koronasta: Uudellamaalla ennätyslukemat [Latest corona news: Southern Finland region scored record-high]. National Broadcasting Company. https://yle.fi/uutiset/3-11794915




DOI: https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijels.v.9n.2p.2

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2022 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies  

You may require to add the 'aiac.org.au' domain to your e-mail 'safe list’ If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox'. Otherwise, you may check your 'Spam mail' or 'junk mail' folders.