Various Models for Reading Comprehension Process

Parastoo Babashamsi, Saeideh Bolandifar, Nahid Shakib

Abstract


In recent years reading can be viewed as a process, as a form of thinking, as a true experience, and as a tool subject. As a process, reading includes visual discrimination, independent recognition of word, rhythmic progression along a line of print, precision in the return sweep of the eyes, and adjustment of rate. In the same line, the present paper aims at considering the various models of reading process. Moreover, the paper will take a look at various factors such as schema and vocabulary knowledge which affect reading comprehension process. 

 


Keywords


Reading comprehension, psycholinguistic model, bottom-up Model, top-down model, interactive model.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abedi, J. (2008). Classification System for English Language Learners: Issue and recommendation. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 27(3), 17-31.

Adam, P. (1990). Saltmarsh Ecology. Cambridge University Press, Newyork.

Ajideh, P. (2003). Schema Theory- based Pre-reading Task: A Neglected Essential in the ESL Reading Class. The Reading Matrix, 3(1).

Alderson, C. (2000). Assessing reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Alyousef, H. S. (2005).Teaching reading comprehension to ESL/EFL learners . The Reading Matrix,5 (2).

Anderson, N. J. (1999). Exploring second language reading .Boston, MA: Heinle and Heinle.

Anderson, R. C. (1994). Role of the reader’s schema in comprehension, learning, and memory. In Ruddell, R. B., Ruddell, T. and Singer,H. (Eds), Theoretical Models and Processes of Reading. Newark: International Reading Association.

Anderson, B. and Barnitz, J. (1984). Cross-cultural achema and reading comprehension instruction. Journal of reading, 27, 103-107.

Anderson, R. C., and Pearson, P. D. (1988). A schema-theoretic view of basic processes in reading comprehension. In Carrell, P., Devine, J., and Eskey, D. (Eds), Interactive Approaches to Second Language Reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University press.

Bartlett, F. C. (1932). Remembering. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Buly,M. and Valencia, S. (2002). Below the bar: Profiles of students who fail state reading assessments. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 24 (3), 219–239.

Carrell, P. L. (1987).Content and formal schemata in ESL reading. TESOL Quarterly, 21, 461–481.

Carrell, P. L. (1988). Some causes of text- roundedness and schema interference in ESL reading. In P. L. Carrell , J. Devine, and D. E. Eskey (Eds.), Interactive Approaches to Second Language Reading (pp. 101–113). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Carrell, P. L. (1991). Second language reading: Reading ability or language proficiency? Applied Linguistics, 12(2), 159-179.

Carrell , P. L., and Eisterhold , J. C. (1983). Schema theory and ESL reading. TESOL Quarterly, 17, 553–573.

Chall, J. S. (1967). Learning to read: The great debate: An inquiry into the science, art, and ideology of old and new methods of teaching children to read, 1910–1965. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Chastain, K. (1988). Developing second language skills (3rd end) . San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.

Clay, M. M. (1993). An observation survey of early literacy achievement . Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Coady, J. (1979). A psycholinguistic model of the ESL reader . In R. Mackay, B. Barkman, and R.R. Jordon (Eds), Reading in a Second Language (pp 5-12). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Curtis, M. E., and Glaser, R. (1983). Reading theory and the assessment of reading Achievement. Journal of Educational Measurement, 20(2), 133–147.

Dole, J. A., Duffy, G. G., Roehler, L. R., and Pearson, P. D. (1991). Moving from the old to the new: Research on reading comprehension. Review of Educational Research, 61, 239-264.

Dubin, F. and Bycina, D. (1991). Academic reading and the EFL/ESL teacher. In M. CelceMurcia (Ed), Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Massachusetts: Heinle and Heinle Publishers.

Ellis, G. and Sinclair, B. (1989). Learning to learn English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Elizabeth, B. (2005). Progress and procrastination in second language reading. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, (25), 133-150.

Eskey, D. E. (1997). Models of reading and the ESOL student: Implications and limitations. Focus on Basics, 1(B), 9-11.

Goodman, K. S. (1967). Reading: A psycholinguistic guessing game. Journal of the Reading Specialist, 6, 126-135.

Goodman, K. S. (1970). Reading as a psycholinguistic guessing game. In H. Singer and R.B. Rudell (Eds.), Theoretical Models and Processes of Reading. Newark, NJ. International Reading Association.

Goodman, K. S. (1973). On the psycholinguistic method of teaching reading. In F. Smith (Eds.), Psycholinguistics and Reading. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Gough, P. B., Hoover, W. A., and Peterson, C. L. (1996). Reading comprehension difficulties: Processes and intervention. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Gunning, T. G. (1996). IMF Papers on Policy Analysis and Assessment, Staff papers. Washington: International Monetary Fund Publication Services.

Hudson, T. (1982) .The effects of induced schemata on the “short circuit” in L2 reading performance. Language Learning, 32(1), 1-31.

Iwai, Y. (2007). Developing ESL/EFL learners’ reading comprehension of expository texts. The Internet TESL Journal, 13(7).

Johnson, A. P. (1981). Effects on reading comprehension of language complexity and cultural background of a text. TESOL Quarterly, 15(2), 169-182.

Kitao, S. K. (1990). Textual schemata and English language learning. Cross Currents, 17, 147-154.

Laufer, B. (1997). The lexical plight in second language learning. In Coady, J. and Huckin, T. (Eds) . Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Laufer, B. (1989). What percentage of text-lexis is essential for comprehension? In C. Lauren and M. Nordmann (Eds.), Special Language: From Humans Thinking to Thinking Machines (pp. 316-323). Clevdon, Avon: Multilingual Matters.

Liu, N. and Nation, I. S. P. (1985) . Factors affection guessing vocabulary in context . RELC Journal, 16, 33-42.

Madden, D. J. and Nebes, R. D. (1980) .Visual perception and memory. In M. C. Withrock (Ed), The Brain and Psychology (pp. 141-210). New York: Academic Press.

Mandler, J. M. (1984). Stories, scripts, and scenes: Aspects of schema theory. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Nagy, W., Anderson, R. and Herman, P. (1987). Learning word meanings from context during normal reading. American Educational Research Journal, 24, 237-270.

Nation, I. S. P. (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

National Accessible Reading Assessment Projects (2006). Defining reading proficiency for accessible large-scale assessments: Some guiding principles and issues. Minneapolis, MN: Author.

Nassaji, H. (2002). Schema theory and knowledge-based processes in second language reading comprehension: A need for alternative perspectives. Language Learning, 52, 439–481.

Oller, J. W. (1995). Adding abstract to formal and content schema: Results of recent work in Peircean semiotics. Applied Linguistics, 16, 273–306 .

Paran, A. (1996). Reading in EFL: Facts and fictions. ELT Journal, 50(1), 25-34.

Perfetti, C. (1985). Reading ability. New York: Oxford University Press.

Rumelhart,D. E. (1981). Schemata: The building blocks of cognition. In J. T. Guthrie (Ed.), Comprehension and Teaching: Research Reviews (pp.3-36). Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association.

Schank, R., and Abelson, R. (1977). Scripts, plans, goals, and understanding. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Siegel, L. S. (1993). Phonological processing deficits as the basis of a reading disability. Developmental Review, 13(3), 246–257.

Singhal, M. (1998). A comparison of L1 and L2 reading: Cultural differences and schema. The Internet TESL Journal, 4 (10).

Snow, C. E., Burns, M. S. and Griffin, P. (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Stahl, S. A. and Murray, B. A. (1998). Issues involved in defining phonological awareness. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86, 221–234.

Stanovich, K. E. (1994). Romance and reality. The Reading Teacher, 47, 280–291.

Stanovich, K. E. (1980). Toward an interactive- compensatory model of individual differences in the development of reading fluency. Reading Research Quarterly, 16, 32-71 .

Zimmerman, C. B. (1997). Historical Trends in Second Language vocabulary instruction in second Language vocabulary acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 5-19.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.2n.6p.150

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2020 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.