Developing Pictographic Impact on the Minds of the Students through Poetry of John Seely’s Textbook Taught at O’level in Pakistan

Abid Hayat Khokhar, Zaira Wahab


Poetry is one of the chief ingredients of the textbooks taught in the classes of language as well as arts that appeals to our senses in several domains. Imagery in poetry bears pictographic impact on the minds of the readers. This study aims at finding out what kind of imagery and images are employed in the book and how far they succeed in bringing about pictographic impact on the minds of the students. Content analysis of the poems in qualitative paradigm was adopted for this study. Direct and indirect interviews of the students were also conducted. It was found out that the poems of the book contained all pervasive versatile imagery. Moreover, the images and imagery had verbal as well as visual impact on the minds of the students that helped them improve their memory, increase their vocabulary, enhance comprehension, and develop interest in reading.



Development, Pictographic, Impact, Poetry, Textbook, O’level, Pakistan

Full Text:



Adorno, T. W. (1997) Aesthetic Theory. Ed Gretel Adorno and Rolf Tiedemann. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Anderson, R. C., Kulhavy, R.W. (1972). Imagery and prose learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 63, 242-243

Benton, P. (1999). Unweaving the Rainbow: poetry teaching in the secondary school I .Vol. 25, No. 4 (Dec., 1999), pp. 521-531. Oxford Review of Education. Taylor & Francis Ltd. Abingdon.

Benton, P. (2000). The Conveyor Belt Curriculum: Poetry teaching in the secondary school II. Vol. 26, No. 4 (Dec., 1999), pp. 521-531. Oxford Review of Education. Taylor & Francis Ltd. Abingdon.

Bohn, W. (2001). Modern Visual Poetry, Newark: University of Delaware P. Cranbury, NJ.

Brooks, C. & Warren, R. P. (1950). Understanding poetry rev: Ed. New York: Henry Holt.

Center, Y., Freeman, L., Robertson, G., & Outhred, L. (1999). The effect of visual imagery training on the reading and listening comprehension of low listening comprehenders in year 2. Journal of Research in Reading, 22, 241-256

Chall, J. (2000). The academic achievement challenge: What really works in the classroom? New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Coffman, S. K. (1951). Imagism: A Chapter for the History of Modern Poetry. University of Oklahoma Press. 1st edition (1951). Noman.

Collins B. C. (2001). Teaching the language arts: Expanding thinking through student-centered instruction. (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Douville, P. (1998). Bringing text to life: The effects of a multi-sensory imagery strategy on fifth-graders’ prose processing. Research report presented at the 43rd Annual Meeting of the International Reading Association, Orlando, Fl.

Downey, j. E. (1912). “Literary Self Projection.”Psychological Review. 299-311

Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M. (1997). Peabody picture vocabulary tests. 19, (3rd ed.). Bloomington, Pearson Assessments.

Eisner, E. (1998). The Kinds of Schools We Need: Personal Essays. Portsmouth, Nh: Heinemann.

Frank, J. (1991).The Idea of Spatial Form. New Brunswick. NJ: Rutgers UP

Gambrell, L., & Jawitz, P. (1993). Mental Imagery, text illustrations, and children’s story comprehension and recall. Reading Research Quarterly, 28, 264-276.

Gambrell, L. B. (1983). Induced mental imagery and the written language expressions of young children. In J. A. Niles (Eds.), Searches for meaning in reading/language processing and construction(32nd year book of the National Reading Conference, pp 251-254, Rochester, NY: National Reading Conference.

Gibson, U. T. (2008). A Level-Headed Means to Evaluate Poetry. On Judging Poetry, Retrievable at

Green, M. (1978). Landscapes of Learning. New York: Scholastic.

Heard, G. (1998). Awakening the Heart: Exploring Poetry in Elementary and Middle School (p.62-72). Portsmouth N.H. Heinemann.

Hinkel, E. (2005). Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning, (edited), Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hinkel, E. (2005). Culture in Second Language Teaching and Learning. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.

Howard, G. (1989). To Open Minds: Chinese Clues to the Dilemma of American Education. Basic Books. New York.

Jones, P. (1972). Imagist Poetry. Penguin. London.

Korg, J. (2001). Imagism. A Companion to Twentieth Century Poetry. Ed. Neil Roberts. Oxford: Blackwell, 127-137

Locke, J. (1690). Essay Concerning Human Understanding, The Pennsylvania State University.

Major, S. (2012). The Impact of Hemispheric Dominance on Learning to Read. Retrievable at Submitted by Sarah Major (not verified) on April 16, 2012 - 12:35pm

Nica, M. (2011). Teaching Poetry to Undergraduate Students. Elsevier Ltd. Ploiesti.

Paivio, A. (1965). Abstractness, imagery, and meaningfulness in paired-associate learning. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 4, 32-38.

Paivio, A. (1969). Mental imagery in Associative learning and memory. Psychological Review, 241-263

Pike, M. (2000). Keen readers: Adolescents and pre-twentieth century poetry. Educational Review, 52(1), 13–28.

Pound, E. (1915). Some Imagist Poets: An Anthology. Boston: Houghton, 1915.

Pressley, M. (1976). Mental imagery helps eight-year-olds remember what they read. Journal of Educational Psychology, 68(3), 355-359

Pudewa, A. (2005). Linguistic Development through Poetry Memorization. Institute of Excellence in Writing, Inc. retrieved through

Reverend, C. (1983). Teaching Poetry: The negative approach. College Literature

Vol. 10, No. 3, First-Decade Issue-Fall, , retrievable at

Richards, I. A. (2001). Practical Criticism: A Study of Literary Judgment. Ed. John Constable. London: Routledge.

Richards, I. A. (1961). Principles of Literary Criticism. New York: Harcourt Brace,

Roeckelein, J. E. (2004). Imagery in Psychology: A Reference Guide. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger,

Romano, T. (1998). “Relationship with Literature.” English Education 30:1 Feb; 5-18

Rosenblatt, L. (1978). The Reader, the Text, the Poem: The Transactional Theory of the Literary Work. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University press.

Sadoski, M. (2005). A dual coding view of vocabulary learning. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 21, 221-223

Sadoski, M., & Paivio, A. (1994). A dual coding view of imagery and verbal processing reading comprehension. In R.B. Ruddell, M. R. Ruddell, & H. Singer (Eds) Theoretical models and processes of reading (pp.582-601), Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Sadoski, M., Goetz, E. T., & Fritz, J. N. (1993), Impact of correctness on comprehensibility, interest, and memory for text: Implication for dual coding theory and text design. Journal of Educational Psychology, 291-304.

Sadoski, M, Goetz, E. and J. B. Fritz. (1993). Impact of Concreteness on Comprehensibility. Interest and Memory for Text: Implication for Duel-Coding Theory and Text Design. Journal of Education Psychology, 85(2), 291-304.

Seely, J. (2002). English Alive: A Complete ‘O’ Level English Programme (Book 1 & 2). Oxford University Press. Karachi.

Shuman, R. B. (1993). Teach Poetry? Indeed! p.19, Educational Leadership.

ASCD retrievable at

Simonides (556 BC - 468 BC). Silent Poetry.

Sperry, R. W. (1981) Mind-brain Interaction: Mentalism, Yes; Dualism, No. Mobius 1(4), 46-65.

Winograd, P., & Greenlee, M. (1986). Students need a balanced reading program. Educational Leadership. April, 16-21.

Wooldridge, B. R. (2006) , The power of perception an active/ Experiential learning Exercise for principles of Marketing, Marketing Education Review, 16 (summer),2. 5-7.

Zitlow, C. S. “Paula Fox.” (1997). In Writers for Young Adults, Volume 1. Edited by Ted Hipple. New Yourk: Scribners, 413-422.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2020 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.