Voicing Strategies Employed in Narrow Listening Among Iranian Female Freshmen

Mohsen Shahrokhi, Farinaz Shirani Bidabadi, Hamidah Yamat

Abstract


This study discusses the findings of a qualitative study on the strategies used by Iranian female freshmen in narrow listening. The data collected through semi-structured interview with 12 female freshmen (four learners as  advanced, four as intermediate and four as low) chosen purposefully based on their scores in the Oxford Placement Test administered. Six out of 12 freshmen were identified for the think-aloud protocol to draw out the strategies they used. The data collected were analyzed using open, axial, and selective-coding. The analysis of the participants’ interview and think-aloud protocol data generated 12 major themes. Five themes (attention, readiness, evaluating, autonomous learning, and change the speech rate) described meta-cognitive; five themes (imitating and repeating, references, visualization, making notes while listening and word-by-word and sentence-by-sentence attention) described cognitive strategies and two themes (asking for help, self-talk) described socio-affective strategies. These strategies need to be taught explicitly to increase learners’ understanding of the spoken texts in the second/foreign language. This study recommends that Iranian EFL female freshman university learners’ top-down, bottom-up processing and listening strategy awareness should be cultivated and integrated into the teaching of listening to improve the learners’ listening ability. 


Keywords


Narrow listening, listening strategies, listening proficiency, female freshmen, EFL Learners

Full Text:

PDF

References


Allan, D. (1992). Oxford placement test. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Anderson, J.R. (1983). The architecture of cognition. Cambridge, M A: Harvard University Press.

Anderson, J. R. (1995). Cognitive psychology and its implications. 4th Edition. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.

Brown, R. A. (2005). Autonomous Learning Strategies of Japanese EFL Students. The Language Teacher, 29(4), 11-14.

Brown, R. A. (2007). Enhancing motivation through repeated listening. Information & Communication Studies, 37, 9-15. Chigasaki, Japan: Bunkyo University.

Caspino, B. K. (2005). Support for narrow listening libraries. The International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, IJELT 1(4), 2-9.

Chamot, A. U. (1987). The learning strategies of ESL students. In A. Wenden, & Rubin (Ed.). Learner strategies in language learning (pp. 71-83). Prentice-Hall International (UK) Ltd.

Creswell, J. W. (2002). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Columbus, Ohio. Merrill Prentice Hall. University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

Dunkel, P. (1991). Listening in the native and second/foreign language: Toward an integration of research and practice. TESOL Quarterly, 25, 431–457.

Dupuy, B.C. (1999). Narrow listening: an alternative way to develop and enhance listening comprehension in students of French as a foreign language. System, 27, 351-361.

Flowerdew, J., & Miller. L. (2005). Second language listening: Theory and practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Goh, C. C. (1998). How ESL learners with different listening abilities use comprehension strategies and tactics. Language Teaching Research 2 (2):124-147.

Goh, C. C. M. (2000). A cognitive perspective on language learners’ listening comprehension problems. System 28 (1):55-57.

Jensen, E. D., & Vinther, T. (2003). Exact repetition as input enhancement in second language acquisition. Language Learning, 53, 373-428.

Krashen, S. (1996). The case for Narrow Listening. System, 24(1), 96-100.

Liu, M. M. (2006). Extensive or repeated? A comparison of their effects on the use of listening strategies. University of Oxford, Dept of Educational Studies.

Macaro, E. (2003). Teaching and learning a second language. London: YHT Ltd.

Nunan, D. (1999). Second language teaching and learning. Boston, Massachusetts 02116 U.S.A.: Heinle and Heinle, An International Thomson Publish.

O'Malley, J. M., Chamot, A. U., & Kupper, L. (1989). Listening comprehension strategies in second language acquisition. Applied Linguistics, 10 (4), 418-437.

O'Malley, M. J., & Chamot, A. U. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. England: Cambridge University Press.

Rost, M. (2002). Teaching and researching listening. London: Longman.

Richards, J. C. (2005). Interchange Intro. 3ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Richards, K. (2003). Qualitative inquiry in TESOL. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Smidt, E., & Hegelheimer, V. (2004). Effects of online academic lectures on ESL listening comprehension, incidental vocabulary, and strategy use. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 17, 517-556.

Strauss, A. L. & Corbin, J. M. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. California: Sage Publications, Inc.

Tokeshi, M. (2006). Listening comprehension processes of six Japanese junior high school students in interactive settings. The Language Teacher, 30 (1), 3-7

Vandergrift, L. (1992). The comprehension strategies of second language (French) listeners. PhD Thesis, University of Alberta, Canada.

Vandergrift, L. (1996). Listening strategies of Core French high school students. Canadian Modern Language Review, 52 (2), 200-223.

Vandergrift, L. (1997). The comprehension strategies of second language (French) listeners: A descriptive study. Foreign Language Annals, 30, 387-409.

Vandergrift, L. (1999). Facilitating second language listening comprehension: acquiring successful strategies. EFL Journal, 53 (3), 168-176.

Vandergrift, L. (2007). Recent developments in second and foreign language listening comprehension research, Language Teaching, 40, 191–210.

Vandergrift, L. (2011). Second language listening: presage, process, product, and pedagogy. In Eli Hinkel (Ed). Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning, Volume II. (pp. 455-471). New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis.

Yang, C. (2009). A study of meta-cognitive strategies employed by English listeners in an EFL setting. International Education Studies, 2 (4), 134-139.

Younezawa, M. and Ware, J. L. (2008). Examining extensive listening. In K. Bradford-Watts, T. Muller, & m. Swanson (Eds), JALT 2007 Conference Proceedings. Tokyo: JALT.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.2n.3p.138

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2019 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.