Native Breath: Incorporating Linguistically Relevant Pedagogy in the Classroom through Reified Literature

Desiree de Chachula



The native breath of linguistic minority students, including speakers of vernaculars and dialects, has traditionally been stifled in classroom ecologies that perpetuate the hegemony of English. A model of linguistically relevant pedagogy is articulated that empowers students both native and nonnative to the Standard to develop cultural competence and critical consciousness towards language. This potentially results in improved native breath valuation and paving the road for improved academic outcomes and facility in learning the societal Standard language as well as gaining tools required in the global age. Drawing from the LIAD (Nero, 2005) and Dialect Awareness (Adger, Wolfram & Christian, 2006) pedagogical frameworks, this paper proposes ways in which educators can support linguistically relevant pedagogy through the teaching of "canonized" fiction.


The language I have learn’ed these forty years,

my native English I must forgo;

and now my tongues use is to me no more

Than an unstringed viol or a harp,

Or like a cunning instrument cased up,

Or, being open, put into his hands

That knows no touch to tune the harmony:

Within my mouth you have engao’ld my tongue

Doubly portcullis’d with my teeth and lips;

And dull unfeeling barren ignorance

Is made my gaoler to attend on me

I am too old to fawn upon a nurse,

Too far in years to be a pupil now:

What is thy sentence then but speechless death,

Which robs my tongue from breathing native breath

-Mowbray, Richard II, Act 1 scene 3 (Shakespeare, W.  1595)


bilingualism, culture, literacy

Full Text:



Adger, C. T., Wolfram, W., & Christian, D. (2007). Dialects in schools and communities. (2nd ed.). Mahwah,NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Ahmad, D. (2007). (Ed.). Rotten English: A literary anthology. New York & London: W.W. Norton.

Baker, C. (1992). Attitudes and language. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Blackledge, A. (2003). Imagining a monocultural community: Racialization of cultural practice in educational discourse. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 2(4), 331-347.

Brutt-Griffler, J. (2002). World English: A study of its development. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters Press.

Brutt-Griffler, J. (2007). Bilingualism and Elearning. In R. Andrews & C. Haythornthwaite (Eds.), Handbook of Elearning Research, pp. 349-370. London: Sage.

Canagarajah, S. (2005). Critical Pedagogy in L2 Learning and Teaching. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning (pp. 931-949). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

García, O. & Menken, K. (2006). The English of Latinos from a plurilingual transcultural angle: Implications for assessment and schools. In S. Nero (Ed.), Dialects, Englishes, creoles, and education (pp. 167-184). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Gee, J. P. (2000). Discourse and sociocultural studies in reading. In M.L. Kamil, P.B. Mosenthal, P.D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Ed.), Handbook of reading research (pp. 195-207). Manweh, NJ: Erlbaum.

Kachru, Y. (2006). World Englishes and language education. In S. J. Nero (Ed.),Dialects, Englishes, Creoles and Education (pp. 19- 37). London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Krashen, S. (1996). Under Attack: The Case Against Bilingual Education. Burlingame CA: Language Education Associates.

Labov, W. (1972). Sociolinguistic Patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). But that's just good teaching! The case for culturally relevant pedagogy. Theory into Practice, 34(3), 159-165.

Ladson-Billings, G (1995). Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy. American Education Research Journal, 35, 465-491.

Leung, C., Harris, R. & Rampton, B. (1997). The idealised native-speaker, reified ethnicities and classroom realities. TESOL Quarterly, 31(3): 543–60.Michael-Luna, S. (2008). Todos somos Blancos/We are all white: Constructing racial identities through texts. Journal of Language, Identity & Education, 7(3), 272- 293.

Morgan, B. (1997). Identity and intonation: Linking dynamic processes in an ESL classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 31(3), 431-450.

Nasir, N. S., & Saxe, G. B. (2003). Ethnic and academic identities: A cultural practice perspective on emerging tensions and their management in the lives of minority students. Educational Researcher, 32(5), 14.

Nero, S. J. (2005). Language, identities, and ESL pedagogy. Language and Education, 9(3), 194-211.

Shakespeare, W. (2003). Richard II. London: Nick Hern Books.

Shannon, S. M. (1995). The hegemony of English: A case study of one bilingual classroom as a site of resistance. Linguistics and Education, 7(3), 175-200.

Siegel, J. (2006). Keeping creoles and dialects out of the classroom: Is it justified? In S. J. Nero (Ed.), Dialects, Englishes, Creoles and Education (pp. 19- 37). London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Suárez-Orozco, M. (2000). Everything you ever wanted to know about assimilation but were afraid to ask. Daedalus-Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 129(4), 1-30.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2008). U.S. Interim Projections by Age, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 2000–2050 [Data file]. Retrieved from:

Wolfram, W., & Schilling-Estes, N. (1998). Tri-ethnic dialect situations. American English,181–182.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2021 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.