Conjunctions in Malaysian Secondary School English Language Textbooks

Alicia Philip, Jayakaran Mukundan, Vahid Nimehchisalem

Abstract


The present research aims to investigate the distribution pattern of conjunctions and their ranking in two different corpora, namely the Malaysian school English language Textbook Corpus (Textbook Corpus) and the British National Corpus (BNC). An additional objective of the study was to find out how conjunctions had been presented in the Malaysian school English language textbooks (Forms 1-5). The method applied was qualitative content analysis. The findings indicated that coordinating conjunctions were the most frequent conjunctions that occurred in the five textbooks followed by subordinating and correlative conjunctions. The ranking of the different types of conjunctions in the Textbook Corpus was similar to that of the reference corpus, BNC. The results also indicated that the textbooks failed to present conjunctions effectively. The findings are expected to help textbook developers or language teachers in developing or adapting learning materials.


Keywords


Conjunctions, Textbook evaluation, Distribution patterns

Full Text:

PDF

References


Arshad A. S., Hassan. F., Mukundan. J., Kamarudin. G., Abd. Rahman. S. Z. S., Rashid. J., & Vethamani. M. E. (2002). The English of Malaysian school students (EMAS) corpus. Serdang: UPM.

Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C. & Sorensen, C. (2010). Introduction to Research in Education (8thed.). California: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Barbieri, F., & Eckhardt, S. (2007). Applying corpus-based findings to form-focused instruction: The case of reported speech. Language Teaching Research, 1(3), 319–346.

Biber, D. & Reppen, R. (2002).What does frequency have to do with grammar teaching? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 24, 199–208.

Bloor, T. &Bloor, M. (1995). The Functional Analysis of English London, New York: Arnold

Botley, De Alwis, Metom & Izza, (2005). CALES: a corpus based archive of learner English in Sarawak. A Report. Universiti Teknologi MARA.

Burnard, L. & McEnery, T. (Eds.). (2000). Rethinking language pedagogy from a corpus perspective. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Carter, R. & McCarthy, M. (1995). Grammar and the spoken language. Applied Linguistics 16(2), 141-58.

Celce-Murcia, Marianne and Diane Larsen-Freeman. 1983. The Grammar Book: An ESL/EFL Teacher’s Course. New York: Newbury House.

Celce-Murcia, M. & Larsen-Freeman, D. (1999). The Grammar book: an ESL/EFL teacher’scourse. 2nd ed. Boston: Heinle&Heinle.

Conrad, S. M. (2000). Will corpus linguistics revolutionize grammar teaching in the 21st century? TESOL Quarterly 34(3), 548–60.

Connor, U and Upton, T. A. (Eds.). (2004). Applied corpus linguistics: A multi-dimensional perspective. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Cowan, R. (2008). The Teacher's Grammar of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University. Cunningsworth, A. (1995). Choosing your coursebook. Oxford: Heinemann

Crewe, W.J. (1990). The illogical connectives. ELT Journal, 44(4), 316-325.

Ellis, R. (1997). Second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R. (2002). Grammar teaching – practice or consciousness raising? In J.C. Richards & W.A. Renandya (Eds.), Methodology in language teaching: An anthology of current practice (pp. 167-174). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Field, Y. & Yip, L. (1992). A comparison of internal conjunctive cohesion in the English essay writing of Cantonese speakers and native speakers of English. RELC Journal,23(1), 15-28

Good, E.C. (2002). A grammar book for you and I—oops, me! : All the grammar you need to succeed in life. Virginia: Capital Books Inc.

Hughes, R. & Heah, C. (1993). Common errors in English: Grammar exercises for Malaysians (2nd ed.). Shah Alam: FajarBakti.

Hulstijn, J.H. (1995). Not all grammar rules are equal: giving grammar instruction its proper place in foreign language teaching. In R. Schmidt (Ed.), Attention and awareness in foreign language learning (Technical Report No.6) (pp. 359–386). Honolulu: University of Hawaii, Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center.

Johns, T. (1997), Contexts: the background, development and Mailing of a concordance-based CALL program. In Baker, P. Using Corpora in Discourse Analysis. London: Continuum.

Kaszubski, P. (1998). Enhancing a written textbook: national perspective. In S. Granger (Ed.), Learners English on computer. London: Longman.

Kennedy, G. (1998). An introduction to corpus linguistics. London: Longman Publishing.

Khojasteh, L. (2010). A corpus-based study of modal auxiliary verbs used in the Malaysian English language textbooks. (Unpublished doctoral thesis). Serdang: Universiti Putra Malaysia.

Khojasteh, L. (2011). Modal auxiliary verb in prescribed Malaysian English textbooks. English Language Teaching 4(1), pp.79-89.

Krashen, S. (1981). Principle and Practice in second language acquisition English language: Teaching series. London: Prentice Hall.

Lai, Y.Y. (2008). A corpus investigation of conjunctive use in the Taiwanese students’ writing. (Unpublished master thesis). Ming Chuan University, Taiwan.

Leong, A. (2011). Analysis on the use of articles in the Malaysian secondary school English language textbook. (Unpublished master thesis). Serdang: University Putra Malaysia.

Lawson, A. (2001). Rethinking French grammar for pedagogy: The contribution of French corpora. In Simpson, R.C. & Swales, J.M., (Eds.), Corpus linguistics in North America: Selections from the 1999 Symposium (pp. 179-194). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press.

McCarty, M. (2004). From Corpus to coursebook. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

McEnery, T. & Wilson, A. (2001). Corpus linguistics: An introduction (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University.

Mellon, J.C. (1969). Transformational sentence-combining: A method for enhancing the development of syntactic fluency in English composition. Urbana, Illinois: NCTE.

Menon, S. (2009). Corpus-based analysis of lexical patterns in Malaysian secondary school science and English for science and technology textbooks (Unpublished doctoral thesis). Serdang: Universiti Putra Malaysia.

Mindt, D. (1996). English corpus linguistics and the foreign language teaching syllabus in J. Thomas and M. Short (eds.). Using corpora for language research (pp. 232-247). Harlow: Longman.

Ministry of Education, Malaysia (1991). Compendium: A handbook for ELT teachers. vol 2. Kuala Lumpur: Maziza.

Mukundan, J. (2007). Evaluation of Language Textbooks: Some Important Issues for consideration. Journal of NELTA, 12(1&2).

Mukundan, J. (2009). ESL textbook evaluation: A composite framework. Köln, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing.

Mukundan, J. & Anealka, A. H. (2007). A forensic study of vocabulary load and distribution in five Malaysian Secondary School Textbooks (Forms 1-5). Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities, 15(2), 59-74.

Mukundan, J. & Khojasteh, L. (2011). Modal auxiliary verbs in prescribed Malaysian English textbooks. English Language Teaching, 4(1), 79-89.

Mukundan, J. & Roslim, N. (2009). Textbook representation of prepositions. English Language Teaching, 2(4), 123-130.

Mukherjee, J. & Rohrbach, J. (2006). Rethinking applied corpus linguistics from a language-pedagogical perspective: New departures in learner corpus research in B. Kettemann & G. Marko (eds.). Planning and gluing corpora: Inside the applied corpus linguist's workshop. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Nooreen, N. & Arshad A. S. (2005). Examining the Importance of EST and ESL Textbooks and Materials: Objectives, Content and Form. English for Specific Purposes World. Retrieved from http://www.esp-world.info/Articles_9/textbooks.htm

Nunan, D. (1989). Designing tasks for the communicative classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

O’Neill, R. (1982). Why Use Textbooks? ELT Journal. 36(2), 23-30.

Robin, T.G. (2008). Intermediate English Grammar for ESL learners. United States of America, USA: McGraw Hill.

Sinclair, J. (2004). Intuition and annotation - the discussion continues. In Advances in corpus linguistics. Papers from the 23rd International Conference on English Language Research on Computerized corproa (ICAME 23). Göteborg 22-26 May 2002., eds. Karin Aijmer and Bengt Altenberg, 39-59. Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi.

Sheldon, L. (1988). Evaluating ELT textbooks and materials. ELT Journals, 42(4).

Smith, C., Butler, N.L., Griffith, K.G., &Kritsonis, W.A. (2007). The Role of Communication Context, Corpus-Based Grammar, and Scaffolded Interaction in ESL/EFL Instruction. The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, 4.

Scott, M. (1996, 1997, 1999). Versions (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0) WordSmith Tools. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Steffani, S.A. & Nippold, M.A. (1997). Japanese speakers of American English: Competence with connectives in written language. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 40, 1048-1055.

Swan, M. (1996). Practical English usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Thornbury, S. (2004). How to teach grammar? Malaysia: Pearson Education Limited.

Tribble, C. (2000): Practical uses for language corpora in ELT, In P. Brett & G. Motteram (eds.). A special interest in computers: Learning and teaching with information and communications technologies (pp. 31-41), IATEFL, Whitstable: Kent.

Ur, P. (2006). Grammar practice activities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Zamel, V. (1980). Re-evaluating Sentences combining Practice. TESOL Quarterly 14(1), 81-90.

Zamel, V. (1983). Teaching those missing links in writing. ELT Journal, 37(1), 22-29.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/ijalel.v.1n.1p.1

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2020 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.