Understanding Cognitive Language Learning Strategies

Sergio Di Carlo

Abstract


Over time, definitions and taxonomies of language learning strategies have been critically examined. This article defines and classifies cognitive language learning strategies on a more grounded basis. Language learning is a macro-process for which the general hypotheses of information processing are valid. Cognitive strategies are represented by the pillars underlying the encoding, storage and retrieval of information. In order to understand the processes taking place on these three dimensions, a functional model was elaborated from multiple theoretical contributions and previous models: the Smart Processing Model. This model operates with linguistic inputs as well as with any other kind of information. It helps to illustrate the stages, relations, modules and processes that occur during the flow of information. This theoretical advance is a core element to classify cognitive strategies. Contributions from cognitive neuroscience have also been considered to establish the proposed classification which consists of five categories. Each of these categories has a different predominant function: classification, preparation, association, elaboration and transfer-practice. This better founded taxonomy opens the doors to potential studies that would allow a better understanding of the interdisciplinary complexity of language learning. Pedagogical and methodological implications are also discussed.

 


Keywords


Cognitive processes, cognitive neuroscience, information processing, second and foreign language acquisition, Smart Processing Model

Full Text:

PDF

References


Anderson, J. R., & Reder, L. M. (1979). An elaborative processing explanation of depth of processing. In L. S. Cermak & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Levels of processing in human memory (pp. 385–404). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Atkinson, R. C., & Shiffrin, R. M. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In K. W. Spence & J. T. Spence (Eds.), The psychology of learning and motivation (pp. 89–195). New York: Academic Press.

Atkinson, R. C., & Shiffrin, R. M. (1971). The control processes of short-term memory. California: Stanford University.

Ausubel, D. P., Novak, J. D., & Hanesian, H. (1978). Educational Psychology: A cognitive view. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Baddeley, A. D. (1966). Short-term memory for word sequences as function of acoustic, semantic, and formal similarity. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, 362–365.

Baddeley, A. D. (2000). Short-term and working memory. In E. Tulving & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of memory (pp. 77–92). New York: Oxford University Press.

Baddeley, A. D. (2007). Working memory, thought, and action. New York: Oxford University Press.

Baddeley, A. D. (2012). Working Memory: Theories, Models, and Controversies. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 1–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-120710-100422

Bruning, R. H., Schraw, G. J., & Norby, M. M. (2012). Cognitive psychology and instruction. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Canale, M. (1983a). From communicative competence to communicative language pedagogy. Language and communication, 1, 1–47.

Canale, M. (1983b). On some dimensions of language proficiency. In J.W. Oller (Ed.), Issues in Language Testing Research (pp. 333–342). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Canale, M., & Swain, M. (1980). Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied linguistics, 1, 1–47.

Cohen, A. D., & Oxford, R. L. (2002). Young Learners' Language Strategy Use Survey. In A. D. Cohen & S. J. Weaver (Eds.), Styles and strategies-based instruction: A teachers’ guide (pp. 75–78). Minneapolis: Center for advanced research on language acquisition, University of Minnesota.

Cohen, A. D., Oxford, R. L. & Chi, J. C. (2002). Language Strategy Use Survey. In A. D. Cohen & S. J. Weaver (Eds.), Styles and strategies-based instruction: A teachers’ guide (pp. 68–74). Minneapolis: Center for advanced research on language acquisition, University of Minnesota.

Cooke, S. F., & Bliss, T. V. P. (2006). Plasticity in the human central nervous system. Brain, 129(7), 1659–1673.

Council of Europe (2002). Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment. Strasbourg: Cambridge University Press.

Craik, F. I. M. (2002). Levels of processing: Past, present...future? Memory, 10, 305–318.

Di Carlo, S. (2016). A different perspective to define language learning strategies. International Journal of Research Studies in Language Learning, 6(4), 43–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.5861/ijrsll.2016.1594

De Zubiría, J. (2006). Teorías contemporáneas de la inteligencia y la excepcionalidad [Contemporary theories of intelligence and exceptionality]. Bogotá: Cooperativa Editorial Magisterio.

Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive–developmental inquiry. American psychologist, 34(10), 906.

Gagné, R.M., & Driscoll, M.P. (1988). Essentials of learning for instruction. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Gathercole, S. E. (2008). Working memory. In J. H. Byrne, & R. Menzel, Learning and memory: A comprehensive reference (pp. 33–51). Oxford: Elsevier.

Glasser, W. (1990). The quality school: Managing students without coercion. New York: Harper and Row Publishers.

Greene, R. L. (1992). Human memory: Paradigms and paradoxes. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Gumá Díaz, E. (2001). La memoria humana. In E. Gumá Díaz, & V. M. Alcaraz Romero (Eds.), Texto de neurociencias cognitivas [Text about cognitive neurosciences] (pp. 195–234). Federal Distric: El Manual Moderno.

Hymes, D. H. (1966). Two types of linguistic relativity. In W. Bright (Ed.), Sociolinguistics (pp. 114–158). The Hague: Mouton.

Klein, D., Mok, K., Chen, J. K., & Watkins, K. E. (2014). Age of language learning shapes brain structure: a cortical thickness study of bilingual and monolingual individuals. Brain and Language, 131, 20-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2013.05.014

Kozulin, A. (2005, April). Who needs metacognition more: Teachers or students. Paper presented at the annual meeting of American Educational Research Association, Montreal, Canada.

Lamb, S. M. (1999). Pathways of the brain: The neurocognitive basis of language. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.

Ledesma, J. G. M. (1979). Psicología del aprendizaje [Psychology of learning]. Mexico: Progreso.

Li, P., Legault, J., & Litcofsky, K. A. (2014). Neuroplasticity as a function of second language learning: anatomical changes in the human brain. Cortex, 58, 301-324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2014.05.001

Lockhart, R. S. (2002). Levels of processing, transfer-appropriate processing, and the concept of robust encoding. Memory, 10(5/6), 297–403.

Longman Concise English Dictionary (1985). Harlow: Longman Group Ltd.

Mandler, G. (2001). Remembering. In G. Underwood (Ed.), Oxford guide to the mind (pp. 30–32). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Mandler, G. (2002). Organisation: What levels of processing are levels of. Memory, 10, 333–338.

Mårtensson, J., Eriksson, J., Bodammer, N. C., Lindgren, M., Johansson, M., Nyberg, L., & Lövdén, M. (2012). Growth of language-related brain areas after foreign language learning. NeuroImage, 63(1), 240-244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.06.043

Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2000). Emotional intelligence as zeitgeist, as personality, and as a mental ability.

McVee, M., Dunsmore, K., & Gavelek, J. (2005). Schema theory revisited. Review of Educational Research, 75, 531–566.

Mechelli, A., Crinion, J. T., Noppeney, U., O'Doherty, J., Ashburner, J., Frackowiak, R. S., & Price, C. J. (2004). Neurolinguistics: structural plasticity in the bilingual brain. Nature, 431(7010), 757-757. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/431757a

Neisser, U. (1967). Cognitive psychology. Nueva York: Meredith.

Neves, D. M., y Anderson, J. R. (1981). Knowledge compilation: Mechanisms for the automatization of cognitive skills. In J. R. Anderson (Ed.), Cognitive skills and their acquisition (pp. 86–102). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2002). Definition and selection of competences (DeSeCo): Theoretical and conceptual foundations. Resource document. Swiss Federal Statistical Office. Retrieved from http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/fr/index/infothek/erhebungen__quellen/blank/blank/deseco/02.html.

O'Malley, J. M., & Chamot, A. U. (1990). Learning Strategies in Second Language. Cambridge University Press.

Ortega Loubon, C., & Franco, J. C. (2010). Neurofisiología del aprendizaje y la memoria. Plasticidad Neuronal [Neurophysiology of learning and memory. Neuronal plasticity]. Archivos de Medicina, 1(6), 1–7. http://dx.doi.org/10:3823/048

Oxford, R. (1990). Language learning strategies: what every teacher should know. New York: Newbury House.

Oxford, R. (2013). Teaching and researching language learning strategies. Routledge.

Paivio, A. (1971). Imagery and verbal processes. Nueva York, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Paivio, A. (1986). Dual coding and episodic memory: Subjective and objective sources of memory trace components. In F. Klix and H. Hafgendorf (Eds.), Human memory and cognitive capabilities: Mechanisms and performances (pp. 225–236). Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Robbins, S. E. (2009). The COST of explicit memory. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, 8, 33–66.

Rose, H. (2012). Reconceptualizing Strategic Learning in the Face of Self-Regulation: Throwing Language Learning Strategies out with the Bathwater. Applied Linguistics, 33(1), 92–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/applin/amr045

Rubin, J. (1975). What the good language learner can teach us. TESOL Quarterly, 9 41–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3586011

Rubin, J. (1981). Study of cognitive processes in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 11, 117–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/applin/II.2.117

Rubin, J. (1989). How learner strategies can inform language teaching in Proceedings of LULTAC. Hong Kong: Institute of Language in Education.

Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, cognition and personality, 9(3), 185-211.

Shiffrin, R. M., & Schneider, W. (1977). Controlled and automatic information processing, II: Perceptual learning, automatic attending, and a general theory. Psychological Review, 84, 127–190.

Stanovich, K. E. (2000), Progress in understanding reading: Scientific foundations and new frontiers. Nueva York, NY: Guilford Press.

Stein, M., Federspiel, A., Koenig, T., Wirth, M., Strik, W., Wiest, R., Brandeis, D., & Dierks, T. (2012). Structural plasticity in the language system related to increased second language proficiency. Cortex, 48(4), 458-465. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2010.10.007

Sternberg, R. J. (1985). Beyond IQ: A triarchic theory of human intelligence. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Sternberg, R. J. (1990). Metaphors of mind: Conceptions of the nature of intelligence. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Sternberg, R. J., & Sternberg, K. (2009). Cognitive Psychology. California: Wadsworth.

Treisman, A. M. (1960). Contextual cues in selective listening. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 12(4), 242–248.

Tulving, E., & Osler, S. (1968). Effectiveness of retrieval cues in memory for words. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 77, 593–601.

Tulving, E., & Thomson, D. (1973). Encoding specificity and retrieval processes in episodic memory. Psychological Review, 80 (5), 352–373.

Villanueva, E. B. (2008). Habilidades y competencias lingüísticas. In A. Escamilla, Las competencias básicas. Claves y propuestas para su desarrollo en los centros (pp. 189–203). Barcelona: Graó.

Villar, F. (2003). Psicología cognitiva y procesamiento de la información [Cognitive psychology and information processing]. Resource document. Universitat de Barcelona. Retrieved from http://www.ub.edu/dppsed/fvillar/principal/pdf/proyecto/cap_06_proc_info.pdf.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.6n.2p.114

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2020 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.