A Study of the Inter-Cultural Sensitivity among the Faculty of English Language Centre of Jazan University, Saudi Arabia

Saeed Ahmad, Muhammad Riaz Khan


study explored intercultural sensitivity of 103 faculty members of the English Language Centre (ELC) of Jazan University, Saudi Arabia. A quantitative and non-experimental design was adopted for this study in which intercultural sensitivity of the English language teachers was evaluated on five demographic variables (e.g. gender, education, religion, total teaching experience, and experience of teaching in intercultural context). The results revealed that the international faculty of ELC abreast the basic canons of Intercultural adjustments. This suggests that the teachers are not only familiar with different cultural patterns (like beliefs, values and communication styles) they are willing to minimize these differences and adopt universal set of values for effective educational practices. The results indicate the participants’ higher level of empathy, respect for others’ culture, tolerance on differences and high willingness to integrate with other cultures. The data reveals no statistically significant difference between the two groups in three variables, i.e. gender (Male & Female), qualification (Masters' & Ph.D) and religion (Muslims & Non-Muslims). However, there was found a statistically significant difference in the two groups (Less than ten years & More than ten years) in two variables, i.e. total teaching experience and teaching experience in intercultural context.



Adaptability, English Teaching, Intercultural Sensitivity

Full Text:



Adejumo, C. O. (2003). Considering multicultural art education. Art Education, 55(2), 33-39.

Adler, N. (1991). International dimensions of organizational behavior (2nd Ed.). Boston: PWS-Kent.

Ahmad, S. & Ahmad, N. (2015). Fostering Inter-Cultural Communication Skills among Learners through Teaching English as an International Language. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature, 4(6), 52-57.

Bayles, P.P. (2009). Assessing the Intercultural Sensitivity of Elementary Teachersin Bilingual Schools in a Texas School District. Doctorate dissertation, retrieved on 22.06.2015


Bhawuk, D.P.S., & Brislin, R.W. (1992). The measurement of intercultural sensitivity using the concepts of individualism and collectivism. The International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 16(4), 413-436.

Black, J. S. (1990). The relationship of personal characteristics with the adjustment of Japanese expatriate managers. Management International Review, 30, 119–134.

Black, J. S., & Mendenhall, M. (1990). Cross-cultural training effectiveness: A review and theoretical framework for future research. Academy of Management Review, 15, 113–136.

Black, J. S., Gregersen, H. B., & Mendenhall, M. E. (1992). Global assignments. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Brislin, R. W. (1981). Cross-cultural encounters: Face-to-face interaction. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon.

Byram, M; Nocholas, A & Stevens, D. (2001). Developing Intercultural Competence in Practice. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters

Celik, S. (2013) Cultural Perspectives of Turkish ELT Coursebooks: Do StandardizedTeaching Texts Incorporate Intercultural Features? Education and Science, 38(167).

Chen, G.M. & Starosta, W.J. (1996).Intercultural communication competence: a synthesis. Communication Yearbook, 19, 353-383.

Chen, G.M. & Starosta, W.J. (1998). A review of the concept of intercultural sensitivity. Human Communication, 1, 1-16.

Chen, G.M. & Starosta, W.J. (2000). The development and validation of the intercultural communication sensitivity scale. Human Communication, 3, 1-15.

Chen, G. M., & Starosta, W.J. (2005). Foundations of intercultural communication.Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Cleveland, H., Mangone, G., & Adams, J. (1960). The overseas Americans. New York: McGraw-Hill. DeVellis, R. F. (1991). Scale development. ThousandOaks, CA: Sage.

Diller, J.V., & Moule, J. (2005). Cultural competence: A primer for educators. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

Fantini, A.E. (2006a) Exploring and Assessing Intercultural Competence. Retrieved June 13, 2010, from http://www.sit.edu/SITOccasionalPapers/feil_research _report.pdf.

Fantini, A.E. (2006b). Assessment tools of Intercultural Communicative Competence. Retrieved on 12.12.2015 from: federationeil.org/documents/AppendixF.pdf.

Fretheim, A.M. (2007). Assessing the intercultural sensitivity of educators in an American international school. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota). Dissertation Abstracts International, 68 (12). (UMI No. 3292934).

Fritz, W., Mollenberg, A., & Chen, G.M. (2002). Measuring Intercultural Sensitivity in Different Cultural Contexts. Intercultural Communication Studies, 11 (2), 165-176.

Gay, G. (2000). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, & practice. NewYork, NY: Teachers College Press.

George, S., & Louise-Spindler (1994). Pathways to Cultural Awareness: Cultural Therapy with Teachers and Students, Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Hall, E.T. (1959). The Silent Language, Doubleday & Company, Inc., Garden City, New York: USA

Hammer, M. (2012). The Intercultural Development Inventory: A new frontier in assessment and development of intercultural competence. In M. Vande Berg, R.M. Paige, & K.H. Lou (Eds.), Student Learning Abroad (Ch. 5, pp. 115-136). Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.

Hammer, M.R., Bennett, M.J., & Wiseman, R. (2003). Measuring Intercultural Sensitivity: The intercultural development inventory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 27, 421-443.

Hawes, F., & Kealey, D. J. (1981). An empirical study of Canadian technical assistance. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 5(3), 239–258.

Hawes, F., & Kealey, D. J. (1979). Canadians in development: An empirical study of adaptation and effectiveness on overseas assignment. Ottawa, Ontario. Communication Branch Briefing Center, Canadian International Development Agency.

Helmer, J. (2007). Factors influencing the referral of English language learners within an international elementary school: A mixed methods approach. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota). Dissertation Abstracts International, 68 (05). (UMI No. 3263073).

Jodry, E.O. (2001). Hispanic academic advancement theory: An ethnographic study of students participating in an urban Texas high school advanced diploma program. (Doctoral dissertation, Sam Houston State University). Dissertation AbstractsInternational, 63 (07), 2436A (UMI No. 3059691).

Kealey, D. J. (1996). The challenge of international personnel selection. In D. Landis, & R. S. Bhagat (Eds.), Handbook of intercultural training (2nd Ed.) (pp. 81–105). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Kealey, D. J., & Ruben, B. D. (1983). Cross-cultural personnel selection criteria, issues, and methods. In D. Landis, & R.W. Brislin (Eds.), Handbook of intercultural training, Vol. 1: Issues in theory and design (pp. 155–175). New York: Pergamon.

Kelleher, W.C. (2006). A twenty-year history of Rainbow sections of first-year composition. (Doctoral dissertation, Arizona State University). DissertationAbstracts International, 67 (06), (UMI No. 3220312).

Kelly, G. (1963). A theory of personality: The psychology of personal constructs. New York: Norton.

Kelley & Meyers (1995). The cross-cultural adaptability inventory: Self-assessment. Minneapolis: MN: NCS Pearson.

Klineberg, O., & Hull, F. (1979). At a foreign university. New York: Praeger.

Klump, J., & McNeir, G. (2005). Culturally responsive practices for student success: A regional sampler. Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. RetrievedJanuary 31, 2015, at http://www.nwrel.org/request/2005june/textonly.html.

Ladson-Billings, G. (1994). The dream-keepers: Successful teachers of African American children. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Ladson-Billings, G. (2001). Crossing over to Canaan: The journey of new teachers in diverse classrooms. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Landis, D., & Bhagat, R. S. (1996). Handbook of intercultural training (Eds.) (2nd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Landis, D., & Brislin, R. W. (1983). Handbook of intercultural training (Eds.), Vol. I: Issues in theory and design. New York: Pergamon.

Lombardi, R.M. (2010). Assessing Intercultural Competence: A Review, NCSSSMST Journal. Retrieved on 11.05.2015 from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ930654.pdf

Lundgren, C.A. (2007). Culturally sensitive teaching: Exploring the developmental process. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota). Dissertation Abstracts International, 68 (03), (UMI No. 3256875).

Paige, M.R. (2004). Instrumentation in Intercultural Training. In Dan Landis, Janet. M. Bennett, & Milton, J. Bennett (Eds.), Handbook of Intercultural Training (3rd Ed., Pp 147-165), Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Polat, S. (2011). The attitudes of school directors to the multicultural education in Turkey. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 2(2), 385-393.

Robins, K.N., Lindsey, R.B., Lindsey, D.B., & Terrell, R.D. (2006). Culturally proficient instruction: A guide for people who teach (2nd Ed.). Thousand Oaks,CA: Corwin Press.

Stuhr, P.L. (1994). Multicultural art education and social reconstruction. Studies in Art

Education, 35(3), 171-178.

Villegas, A. M., & Lucas, T. (2002). Educating culturally responsive teachers: A coherent approach. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Weiner, S.D. (2010). My Experiences of Integrating a Cross-cultural Curriculum with Latino Students in an Art Education Classroom, Thesis M.A. retrieved on 21.04.2015 http://scholarworks.gsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1061&context=art_design_these.

Westrick, J.M. & Yuen, C.Y.M. (2007). The intercultural sensitivity of secondary teachers in Hong Kong: A comparative study with implications for professional development. Intercultural education, 18(2), 129-145.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.5n.7p.226


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2019 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.