An Investigation of Pragmatic Functions and Position of Prevalent Persian Discourse Markers Used in Casual Conversations among Tehrani Speakers

Manizheh Alami

Abstract


Given that a systematic treatment of Persian Discourse Markers (hereafter DMs) is almost absent in modern Persian linguistics and to bridge this gap, the audio-recorded data comprising 14 face to face casual conversations involving two-party and multi-party interactions among family members, acquaintances and close friends are used to shed light on these ‘frequently used’ but ‘frequently unnoticed’ linguistic elements. To document a list of the most common DMs typically used in Tehrani dialect of Persian language and to have a detailed description of their discoursal functions in talk, Brinton’s (1996) binary classification of DMs functions (textual and interpersonal) was developed to provide an empirically-supported account of the functions and position of Persian DMs in interaction among Tehrani speakers. The present account of DMs which is basically ‘analytical description’ provides the reader with the knowledge about how Persian DMs operate in actual usage. The findings are built upon a 3105-word corpus including 14 audio-recorded conversations among 50 participants. Altogether 34 tokens of Persian DMs with an overall 254 occurrences were identified among which na/na baba (no/no daddy) with the total of 33 (12.84%) occurrences were the most frequently used Persian DM in the data which are followed by dige (no English equivalent), aare/ba’ale (yep/yes), yani (I mean), vali (but), haalaa/ alaan (now), bebin/nega kon (look) and aslan (by no means/ never).To the author, research on the functions and distributional patterns of Persian DMs will broaden our knowledge of their discoursal behavior in language in general and contribute to the already growing cross-linguistic body of work on DMs.

 


Keywords


Discourse Markers, Persian language, Textual function, Interpersonal function, Casual conversation

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abraham,W. (Ed.) (1991). Discourse Particles in German: How does their illocutive force come about? Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Alami, M. (2015). Pragmatic Functions of Discourse Markers: A review of related Literature. International Journal on Studies in English Language and Literature, 3(3), 1-10.

Andersen, G. (2001). Pragmatic Markers of Sociolinguistic Variation: A Relevance –theoretical approach to the language of adolescent. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Bahrami, A. (1992). English Discourse Markers and their impact on the reading comprehension of Persian EFL students. M.A. Thesis. Allameh Tabataba’i University. Tehran, Iran.

Blakemore, D. (1989). Denial and contrast: A relevance theoretical analysis of ‘but’. Linguistics and Philosophy, 12, 15-37.

Bolden, G.B. (2008). Reopening Russian conversations: The discourse particle-to and the negotiation of interpersonal accountability in closings. Human Communication Research, 34, 99-136.

Brinton, L. (1990). The development of discourse markers in English: Historical linguistics and philology. In J. Fisiak, (Ed.)Trends in Linguistics, Studies and Monographs( 45-71), Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 45-71.

Brinton, L. (1996). Pragmatic Markers in English: Grammaticalization and Discourse Functions. Berling and New York: Mouto de Gruyter.

Brinton, L. (2008). The Comment Clause in English Syntactic Origins and Pragmatic Developments (Studies in English Language). Cambridge: CUP.

Dabirmoghadam, M.(2002). Discourse Markers. Pazhuhesh-E- Zabanha-ye Khareji, 12, 55-76.

Eggins, S. and Slade, D. (1997). Analyzing Casual Conversation. London: equinox.

Erman, B. (1987). Pragmatic Expressions in English: A study of ‘you know’, ‘you see’ and ‘I mean’ in face –to- face conversation. Stockholm: Almqvist and wiksell.

Eslami, Z.R. and Eslami-Rasekh, A. (2007). Discourse markers in academic lectures. Asian EFL Journal, 9(1), Article 2.

Fraser, B. (1990). An approach to discourse marker. Journal of Pragmatics, 14, 383-395.

Fujita, Y. (2001) Functions of discourse markers in Japanese. Texas Papers in Foreign Language Education, 6(1), 147-162.

Goddard, A. and Meanpatterson, L. (2000).Language and Gender. London: Rutledge.

Halliday, M., & Hasan, R. (1976). Cohesion in English. Harlow: Longman.

Jalalifar, A.R. (2008). Discourse markers in composition writing: The case of Iranian learners of English as a foreign language. English Language Teaching, 1(2), 114-122.

Jalalifar, A. R., & Hashemian, M. (2010). Uh, well, You know, I mean it: Discourse Markers use by non-native students in Interview settings. Iranian EFL Journal, 6(1), 101-122.

Knott, A. (1993). Using cue phrases to determine a set of rhetorical relations. In O. Rambow, (Eds.) Internationality and Structure in Discourse Relations: Proceedings of the ACL SIGGEN workshop.

Labov, W. (1972). Sociolinguistic Patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Lenk, U. (1998). Discourse markers and global coherence in conversation. Journal of Pragmatics, 30(2), 245- 257.

Muller, S. (2005). Discourse Markers in Native and Non-native English Discourse. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Noora, A. and Amouzadeh, M. (2015). Grammaticalization of Yæni in Persian. International Journal of Language Studies (IJLS), 9(1), 91-122.

Ostman, J.O. (1983). You Know: A Discourse Functional Approach. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G., and Svartvik, J. (1985). A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. New York: Longman.

Redeker, G. (1991). Review article: Linguistic markers of discourse structure. Linguistics, 29(6), 1139-1172.

Schiffrin, D. (1987). Discourse Markers. Cambridge: CUP.

Schiffrin, D. Tannen, D. and Hamilton, H.E. (2001). The Handbook of Discourse Analysis. London: Blackwell.

Schourup, L. (1985). Common Discourse Particle in English Conversation : like, well, y’know. Birmingham: Garland.

Stenstorm, A.B.(1994). An Introduction to Spoken Interaction. London: Longman.

Yilmaz, E. (2004). A Practical Analysis of Turkish Discourse Markers: yani, iste and sey. PhD Thesis. Istanbul: Middle East Technical University.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.5n.1p.250

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2019 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.