The Relationship between Language Learners’ Willingness to Communicate and Their Oral Language Proficiency with Regard to Gender Differences

Amir Valadi, Afshin Rezaee, Parisa Kogani Baharvand

Abstract


Willingness to communicate (WTC), which is defined as the intention to communicate given a choice, continues to establish itself as a determining construct in bringing about success or failure in  learning a second language (Dӧrnyei, 2005, Peng & Woodrow, 2010). The majority of studies done on the issue are oriented towards ESL contexts leaving us with a gap in English as a foreign language (EFL) context literature. The paucity of studies in EFL contexts caused us to investigate whether WTC and language learners’ oral proficiency were related in an Iranian context. To this end, 70 male and female intermediate language learners learning English at a private institute were chosen as the participants of the study. The WTC questionnaire was given to the participants and a standard speaking test was administered. Also, individual semi-structured interviews with some of the participants were used to obtain supportive data. The results of correlational analyses revealed that there was a strong relationship between learners’ WTC and their oral proficiency with no significant gender difference. The possible reasons for the correlation are discussed with regard to different motivational, contextual, and attitudinal factors.

 


Keywords


Willingness to communicate, EFL/ESL contexts, Individual differences, Speaking proficiency

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ahmadian, M., & Shirvani, K. (2012). The role of gender and academic experience in EFL students̕ willingness to communicate in English in academic context. Presented at Lorestan National English Conference. October, 2012.

Baghaei, P. & Durakhshan, A. (2012). The relationship between willingness to communicate and success in learning English as a foreign language. Elixir psychology, 53.

Baker, S.C., & MacIntyre, P.D. (2000).and second language orientation. Language learning, 50(2), 311- 371.

Brown, H. (2014). Principles of language learning and teaching (6th ed). New York: Longman.

Cao, Y., Philip, J. (2006). Interactional context and willingness to communicate; A comparison of behavior of whole class, group and dyadic interaction. The role of gender in communication System 37, 480- 493.

Cetinkaya B, Y. (2007). Turkish students’ willingness to communicate in English. DokuzEylṻlṻniversiy, BucaEducation Faculty Journal, 21, 115- 123.

Clément, R., Baker, S.C., & MacIntyre, P.D, (2003). Willingness to communicate in a second language: The effect of context, norms, and vitality. Journal of language and social psychology; 22(2), 190- 209.

Dӧrnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner. Lawrence Erlbaum.

Ellis, R. (2008). The study of second acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hashimoto, T. (2002). The constructive approach to the dynamical view of language. In AngeloCangelos, and DomenicoParisi, editors, simulating the evolution of language 307- 324. London: Springer Verlage.

MacIntyre, P.D., (2007). Willingness to communicate in the second language: Understanding the decision to speak as a volitional process. Modern language journal 91. 564- 576.

MacIntyre, P.D, & Mackinnon, S.P. (2007). Embracing affective ambivalence: A research agenda for understanding the interdependent processes of language anxiety and motivation. Presented at city university of Hong Kong. June, 2007.

MacIntyre, P.D., Baker, S.C., Clément, R., & Donovan, L.A. (2002). Sex and age effects on willingness to communicate, anxiety, perceived competence, and L2 motivation among Junior high school French immersion students. Language learning, 52, 537- 564.

MacIntyre, P.D., Baker, S.C, Clément, R., & Conrod, S. (2001). Willingness to communicate, social support and language learning orientation of Immersion student. Studies in second language Acquisition. 23(3). 369- 388.

MacIntyre, P.D., Babin, P.A., & Clément, K, (1991). Willingness to communicate: Antecedents and consequence. Communication Quarterly, 47 (2), 215- 229.

MacIntyre, P.D., Clément, R., Dӧrnyei, Z., Noels, K.A. (1998). Conceptualizing willingness to communicate in a L2: A situational model of L2 confidence and affiliation. Modern language Journal. 82(4) - 545-562.

MacIntyre, P.D. & Charos, C. (1996). Personality, attitudes, and affect as predictors of second language communication. Journal of language and social psychology, 15(1), 3- 26.

McCroskey, J.C. (1992). Reliability and validity of the willingness to communicate scale. Communication Quarterly, 40, 16- 25.

McCroskey, J.C. & Richmond, V.P. (1987).Willingness to communicate. IN J.C. McCroskey & J.A. Daily (Eds). Personality and interpersonal communication (PP. 139-156). Newbury Park, CA: sage.

Peng J, E. & Woodrow, L. (2010). Willingness to communicate in English: A model in the Chinese EFL classroom context. Language learning, 60, 834-76.

Richmond, V.P., & Koach, K.D (1992). Willingness to communicate and employee success in U.S. organization. Journal of Applied communication Research, 20, 95-115.

Shahsavani, S., Shahsavari, Z., Sahragard, R. (2014). On the relationship between willingness to communicate and identity processing styles of the Iranian advanced EFL learners. (online): 2289-2737.

Skehan, P. (1989). Individual differences in second language learning. London: Edward Aronld.

Yashima, T. (2002). Willingness to communicate in a second language: The Japanese EFL context. The modern Language Journal, 86(1).54- 56.

Yashima, T. Zenuk-Nishide, L., Shimizu, K. (2004). The influence of attitudes and affect on willingness to communicate and second language communication. Language learning, 54:1, 119-152.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.4n.5p.147

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2020 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.