The Impact of Gloss Types on Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary Gain and Vocabulary Retention: A Comparative Study
The significance and impact of vocabulary learning in reading comprehension and L2 language learning are apparent to teachers, researchers and language learners. Moreover, glosses are found as one of the most effective strategies regarding vocabulary retention. Therefore, the present study attempted to investigate the effect of different types of glosses on reading comprehension, vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. To this end, 140 Iranian EFL learners learning English were selected and were divided into four groups (footnote gloss group, interlinear gloss group, marginal gloss group, and glossary group). They were required to read a text and answer four reading comprehension questions. In addition, one immediate vocabulary post-test and one delayed vocabulary post-test were taken in order to investigate learners' vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. In order to analyze the data, one one-way ANOVA and one MANOVA were run. The results of one-way ANOVA revealed that participants who received interlinear glosses significantly outperformed the other groups regarding comprehending the text. Moreover, the immediate vocabulary post-test was conducted immediately after reading test and the delayed post-test was administered after four weeks. The results of MANOVA indicated that the group which received interlinear glosses outperformed the other groups in both vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. The present study has implications for teachers and learners. Teachers can find better methods to teach new reading passages as well as vocabulary items. Also, glosses help learners to have a better comprehension of difficult passages and they facilitate learning. Moreover, learners can enhance their vocabulary knowledge with the help of glosses.
Keywords: footnote gloss, interlinear gloss, marginal gloss, glossary, Iranian EFL learners, reading comprehension, vocabulary gain, vocabulary retention
Alessi, S. & Dwyer, A. (2008). Vocabulary assistance before and during reading. Reading in a Foreign Language, 20 (2), 246-263.
Chen, H. (2002). Investigating the effect of L1 and L2 glosses on foreign language reading comprehension and vocabulary retention. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Computer-Assisted Language Instruction Consortium, Davis, CA.
Davis, N. (1989). Facilitating effects of marginal glosses on foreign language reading. The Modern Language Journal, 73 (1), 41-48.
Huckin, T. &Coady, J. (1999). Incidental vocabulary acquisition in a second language: A review. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21(2), 181-193.
Hulstijn, J. H., Hollander, M. &Greidanus, T. (1996). Incidental vocabulary learning by advanced foreign language students: The influence of marginal glosses, dictionary use, and reoccurrence of unknown words. The Modern Language Journal, 80 (3), 327-339.
Jacobs, G. M. (1994). What lurks in the margin: Use of vocabulary glosses as a strategy in second language reading.Issues in Applied Linguistics, 5(1), 115-137.
Jacobs, G. M., Dufon, P. & Fong, C. H. (1994). L1 and L2 vocabulary glosses in L2 reading passages: Their effectiveness for increasing comprehension and vocabulary knowledge. Journal of Research in Reading, 17 (1), 19-28.
Johnson, P. (1982). Effects on reading comprehension of building background knowledge. TESOL QUARTERLY, 16 (4), 503-516.
Ko, M. H. (2005). Glosses, comprehension, and strategy use. Reading in a Foreign Language, 17 (2),125-143.
Laufer, B. &Hulstijn, J. H. (2001). Incidental vocabulary acquisition in a second language: The construct of task-induced involvement. Applied Linguistics, 22(1), 1-26.
Miyasako, N. (2002). Does text-glossing have any effects on incidental vocabulary learning through reading for Japanese senior high school students? Language Education & Technology, 39, 1-20.
Moazzeni, Zh., Bagheri, M. S., Sadighi, F. & Zamanian, M. (2014). The effect of different gloss types on incidental vocabulary retention of Iranian EFL students. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World, 5 (2), 396-415.
Nagata, N. (1999). The effectiveness of computer-assisted interactive glosses. Foreign Language Annals, 32 (4), 469-479.
Nagy, W. E. (1988). Teaching vocabulary to improve reading comprehension. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Nagy, W. E., Herman, P. A. & Anderson, R. C. (1985). Learning words from context. Reading Research Quarterly, 20(2), 233-253.
Nation, I. S. P. (1983). Teaching and learning vocabulary. Wellington: English Language Institute, Victoria University.
Richgels, D. J. &Mateja, J. A. (1984). Gloss II: Integrating content and process for independence. Journal of Reading, 27(5), 424-431.
Roby, W. B. (1999). What's in a gloss? Language Learning & Technology, 2(2), 94-101.
Stoller, F. L. &Grabe, W. (1993). Implications for L2 vocabulary acquisition and instruction from L1 vocabulary research. In T. Huckin, M. Haynes, & J. Coady (Eds.), Second language reading and vocabulary learning (pp. 24-45). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing.
Yanguas, I. (2009). Multimedia Glosses and their effect on L2 text comprehension and vocabulary learning. Language Learning & Technology, 13(2), 48-67.
Zarei, A. A. &Hasani, S. (2011). The effect of glossing conventions on L2 vocabulary recognition and production. The Journal of Teaching Language Skills, 3(2), 209-233.
Zellwegar, P. T., Regli, S. H., Machinlay, J. D. & Cheng, B. W. (2000). The impact of fluid documents on reading and browsing: An observational study. CHI Letters, 2(1), 249-256.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
2012-2016 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.
International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature
To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.