Colorful ESL Test Papers And Spatial Intelligence:

Dennis Moradkhan, Kourosh Karimi, Atoosa Aryan

Abstract


The purpose of this research was to find out whether introducing color as an element which may appeal to spatially-intelligent candidates affects their performance on ESL grammar tests. 52 participants were given two parallel grammar tests, one in black and white and the other bearing the full spectrum of colors in the natural daylight. In order to identify the candidates with visual-spatial learning style, the participants and their teachers were asked to respond to Visual-Spatial Identifier rating scale. Based on the results, no significant relationship was found between the performance of candidates on the colorful and black and white grammar tests and their visual-spatial intelligence. It was concluded that other variables including the method of applying colors, the type and combination of colors as well as the differential impact of different colors on candidates with different cultural backgrounds needed to be addressed before any conclusions can be drawn about the application of color in language assessment.

 


Keywords


Assessment, colorful exam papers, multiple intelligences, spatial intelligence

Full Text:

PDF

References


Anderson, V. B. (1998). Using Multiple Intelligences to improve retention in foreign language vocabulary study. Education Resources Information Center. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED424745.pdf

Armstrong, T. (2009). Multiple intelligences in the classroom (3rd ed.). Alexandria, VA: Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Armstrong, T. (2003). The Multiple Intelligences of reading and writing. USA, Virginia, Alexandria: Association for supervision and curriculum development.

Bachman, L. (2002). Some reflections on task-based language performance assessment. Language Testing, 19, 453-476.

Brown, H.D. (2010). Language assessment: Principles and classroom practices (2nd ed.). NY: Pearson Longman.

Christison, M. A. (1998). Applying Multiple Intelligences Theory in pre-service and in-service TEFL education programs. [Electronic version]. Forum, 36(2), 2-13.

Christison, M. A. (2005). Assessment as a starting point in second language teacher education. Proceedings from the EFL Testing and Evaluation Forum, American Hellenic Center, October 16, 2004, Athens, Greece.

Daggett, W., Cobble, J., & Gertel, S. (2008). Color in an optimum learning environment. International Center for Leadership in Education, Rexford, NY. Retrieved from http://www.successfulpractices.org/spn/media/files/articles/research/Color%20white%20paper.pdf

Dornyei, Z., & Skehan, P. (2003). Individual differences in second language learning. In C. Doughty & M. Long (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 589–630). Oxford: Blackwell.

Elliot, A. J., Maier, M. A., Moller, A. C., Friedman, R., & Meinhardt, J. (2007). Color and psychological functioning: The effect of red on performance attainment. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 136, 154–168.

Gallagher, S.A., & Johnson, E.S. (1992). The effect of time limits on performance of mental rotations by gifted adolescents. Gifted Child Quarterly, 36, 19-22.

Gardner, H. (1985). The mind’s new science: A history of the cognitive revolution. New York: Basic Books.

Gardner, H. (1991). The unschooled mind: How children think, and how schools should teach.New York: Basic Books.

Gardner, H. (1993). Frames of the mind: The theory of multiple intelligences 10th Anniversary Edition. New York: Basic Books.

Gardner, H. (2006). Multiple intelligences: New horizons. New York: Basic Books.

Griffiths, C. (2012). Learning styles: Traversing the quagmire. In S. Mercer, S. Ryan & M. Williams (Eds.), Psychology for language learning: insights from research, theory and practice (pp. 151-168). Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan.

Haley, M. H. (2001). Understanding learner-centered instruction from the perspective of multiple intelligences. Foreign Language Annals, 34(4), 355-67.

Lantolf, J. P., & Poehner, M. E. (2004). Dynamic assessment in the language classroom (CALPER Professional Development Document CPDD-0411). University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University, Center for Advanced Language Proficiency Education and Research.

Lantolf, J. P., & Poehner, M. E. (2011). Dynamic assessment in the classroom: Vygotskian praxis for second language development. Language Teaching Research, 15(1), 11-33.

Lohman, D. F. (1996). Spatial ability and g. In I. Dennis, & P. Tapsfield (Eds.), Human abilities: Their nature and measurement (pp. 97-116). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Mann, R.L. (2001). Eye to eye: Connecting with gifted visual spatial learners. Gifted Child Today 25 (4), 54-57. Mann, R. L. (2005). Gifted students with spatial strengths and sequential weaknesses: An overlooked and under-identified population. Roeper Review, 27, 91-96.

Martinez, J. V., Oberle, C. D., & Thompson, J. G. Jr. (2010). Effects of color on memory encoding and retrieval in the classroom. American Journal of PsychologicalResearch, 6(1), 24-31.

Murnane, K., Phelps, M. P., & Malmberg, K. (1999). Context-dependent recognition memory: The ICE theory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 128(4), 403-415.

Ou, L. C., Luo, M. R., Sun, P. L., Hu, N. C., Chen, H. S., Guan, S. S., Woodcock, A., Caivano J, L., Huertas, R., Tremeau, A., Billger, M., Izadan, H., Richter, K. (2012). A cross-cultural comparison of colour emotion for two-colour combinations. Color Research and Application, 37(1) , 23-43.

Palmberg, R. (2011). Multiple Intelligences Revisited. Palmsoft Publications. Retrieved from http://www.englishclub.com/esl-lesson-plans/EC-multiple-intelligences-revisited.pdf

Rahmah, L., Hafiza, A., and Tengku Nazatul Shima, T. P. (2012). Affective Engineering of Background Colour in Digital Storytelling for Remedial Students. ELSEVIER Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences (Vol. 68, 19, pp 202-212). Elsevier.

Rivers, S., Toyama, S. (2003). English Time, New York, NY10016, USA.

Shohamy, E. (2001). The power of tests: A critical perspective on the uses of language tests. London: Longman.

Silverman, L. K. (2002). Upside-down brilliance: The visual-spatial learner. Denver, CO: DeLeon Publishing.

Sinclair, R. C., Soldat, A. S., & Mark, M. M. (1998). Affective cues and processing strategy: Color-coded examination forms influence performance. Teaching of Psychololgy, 25(2), 130-132.

Simmons, S. (1995, December). Drawing as thinking. Think Magazine, 23-29.

Sternberg, R. J., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2002). Dynamic testing. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Uttal, D. H., & Cohen, C.A. (2012). Spatial thinking and STEM education: When, why, and how. In B. Ross (Ed.), Psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 57, pp 147-181). Academic Press Elsevier.

William, W., & Anders, L. (2005). Differentiating instruction in the teaching Spanish as a Foreign Language course using multiple intelligence theory. International Journal of Learning. 2005/2006, Vol. 12 Issue 6, p9-14.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.3n.6p.176

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2020 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.