The Utility of Synthetic-based Approach of Writing among Iranian EFL Learners

Nasrin Derakhshandeh

Abstract


The present study intends to examine the utility of synthetic-based approach versus traditional approaches of writing among Iranian EFL learners. To achieve this end, ninety students at Upper-Intermediate level were randomly chosen from the English population of Kish and Gooyesh English Institutes. The students were divided into three groups. Group1 was asked to do a writing task based on product-based approach. A writing task based on process-oriented approach was administered to Group2; later on, Group 3 was invited to write a composition to assess their performance based on synthetic-based approach. The result of the t test and two-way ANOVA revealed that the students performed better in writing using synthetic approach rather than traditional approaches to writing.

 


Keywords


EFL writing proficiency, Product-based approach, Process-based approach, Synthetic-based approach

Full Text:

PDF

References


Atkinson, D. (Ed.). (2003). L2 writing in the post-process era [Special issue]. Journal of Second Language Writing, 12(1).

Badger, R. & G. White. (2000). A process genre approach to teaching writing. ELT Journal, 54(2): 153-160.

Bell, J. & Burnaby, B. (2001). A handbook for ESL literacy. Toronto, Ontario: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education Press.

Brakus, S. (2003). ‘Teaching writing a genre-based approach’. Review of English Language Teaching 62: 24-40.

Britton, J., Burgess, T., Martin, N., McLeod, A., & Rosen, .(1975). Developmentof Writing Abilities [11-18]. London: McMillan.

Brook, Jennifer and Derewianka, B.(1990). Genre. In Carter, R. and Nunan, D. The Cambridge Guide to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Language. (pp.186-193). Cambridge University Press.

Brown, H. D. (2005). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy (2nd ed.). New York: Addison Wesley Longman.

Brokes, G.L. (2005). “Writing groups and the less proficient ESL student”. TESOL Journal, 2(2): 23-26.

Chastain, K. (1988). Developing second language skills: Theory and practice. (3rd ed.). United States of America: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.

Chen, Y. (2002). The problems of university EFL writing in Taiwan. The Korea TESOL Journal, 5(1), 59-9.

Deng, B. (Ed.). (2007). Second language writing: research insights for the classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Dyer, B. (2003). L1 and L2 composition theories: Hillocks' 'environmental mode' and task-based language teaching. ELT Journal 50(4): 312-317.

Edelsky, C., & Smith, K. (1989). Is that writing - or are those marks just a figment of your curriculum. In G. Manning & M. Manning (Eds.), Whole language: Beliefs and practices, K-8 (pp. 183-193). Washington, DC: National Education Association.

Emig, J. (1971). The composing process of twelfth graders. Urbana, IL: The National Council for Teacher Education, (ERIC Document Reproduction No. 058 205).

Faigley, L., Cherry, R. D., Jolliffe, D. A., & Skinner, A. M. (1985). Assessing writers' knowledge and processes of composing. Norwood NJ: Ablex.

Fulkerson, L. (2005). The case of the missing “no”: The relationship between pedagogy and interaction. Language Learning, 47, 547-583.

Gao, J. (2007). Teaching writing in Chinese universities: finding an eclectic approach. Asian EFL Journal (Teaching articles), 20 (2), 285-297.

Graves, D. H. (1984). A researcher learns to write. In M. Rose (Ed.),When a writer can't write (pp. 1-18). New York: Guilford Press.

Hairston, M. (1982). “The winds of change:Thomas Kuhn and the revolution in the teaching of writing”. College Composition and Communication 33(1): 76-88.

Harris, M. (1985). Diagnosing writing process problems: A pedagogical application of speaking-aloud protocol analysis. In M. Rose (Ed.). When a writer can`t write (pp. 166-181). New York: Guilford Press.

Hillocks, G. (1986). Research on written composition. Urbana, IL: ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication.

Hughey, J. B., wormuth. D. R., Hartfiel, V. F., & Jacobs, H.L.(1983). Teaching ESL Composition: Principal and Techniques: Why Write? Writing is Lifetime Skill. Newbery House Publishers, Inc.

Kachru, B. B. (1992). Teaching world Englishes. In B. B. Kachru (Ed.), The other tongue. English across cultures (2nd ed, pp. 355–365). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Kim, Y. & Kim, J. (2005). Teaching Korean university writing class: balancing the process and the genre approach. Asian EFL Journal Online, 7 (2),69- 90. Retrieved on 25th Jan. 2010 from http://www.asian-efl- journal.com/June_05_ yk&jk.php.

Klein, W. (1993). The contribution of second language acquisition research. Language Learning, 48, 527 – 549.

Kumaravadivelu, B. (2006). Criticallanguage pedagogy: A postmethod perspective on English language teaching. World Englishes, 22(4), 539-550.

Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Leki, V.M. (2002). Rethinking Foreign Language Writing. (pp.140-168). Massachusetts: Heinle and Heinle.

Liu, V. ((2008). Analyzing genre: language use in professional settings. Harlow, UK: Pearson Education.

McComiskey, M. (2000). “The winds of change: Thomas Kuhn and the revolution in the teaching of writing”. College Composition and Communication 33(1): 76-88.

Mellow, J. D. (2002). Western influences on indigenous language teaching. In J. Reyhner, J. Martin, L. Lockard, & W. Sakiestewa Gilbert (Eds.), Learn in beauty: Indigenous education for a new century (pp. 102-113). Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University.Available: http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~jar/LIB/LIB9.html

Nunan, D. (1991). Language Teaching Methodology. A Textbook for Teachers. Prentice Hall. Nunan, David.

Omaggio, A. C. (1986). Teaching language in context. Boston, MA: Heinle and Heinle.

Raimes, A. (1984). Anguish as a second language? Remedies for composition teachers. In S. McKay (Ed.). Composing in a second language (pp. 81-96). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Reid, J. M. (2001). The Cambridge guide to teaching English to speakers of other languages. In R. Cater & D. Nunan (Ed.), Writing (p.23-33). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rodgers, R. (2004) Interdisciplinarity as a site of contestation. Draft paper presented at the annual conference of the British Educational Research Association, Exeter, 12-14 September.

Silva, T. (1990). Toward an understanding of the distinct nature of L2 writing: The ESL research and its implications. TESOL Quarterly, 27, 657-677.

Sommers, T.M. (1999). The effect of peer and teacher feedback on student writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 8(3): 265-289.

Watskins, P. (2004). Writing. English Teaching professional. Issue, 30, 40-41.

White, R. (1992). Writing Advanced. Oxford: Oxford University Press.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.3n.3p.195

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2019 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.