The Interface of Error Types, Teacher’s Feedback, and Students’ Uptake

Abdolsaleh Zoghi, Jahanbakhsh Nikoopour

Abstract


The present study is an attempt to investigate the frequency of different types of errors committed by EFL learners and the most prevalent types of errors, the types of corrective feedback do EFL teachers provide primarily in their classes and the students’ reaction followed by feedback, and the combination of corrective feedback and learner uptake leading to negotiation of form. To perform this study, an observational, analytical and descriptive study was conducted. For collecting data, six classes with 6 different instructors were chosen. The number of participants was 60 female students who were at intermediate level from two subsidiaries of Jahad Language Institutes in Karaj, Albourz Province. Homogeneous groups of language learners were selected. Each class was observed for 5 sessions and the interactions among students and instructors in different classes were recorded. The coding scheme was according to Lyster and Ranta’ (1997) model with some additional parts. Two other types of feedback were added, translation and multiple feedback. Also a combination of errors, multiple errors, was added. The analysis of the database showed that among five types of errors, i.e. phonological, grammatical, lexical, multiple errors and L1, the phonological and grammatical errors were committed primarily by students (43% and 30% respectively). From eight types of feedback given to learners, explicit feedback and recast were the most frequent types of feedback provided by the instructors. Finally, four types of feedbacks including elicitation, clarification request, metalinguistic feedback and repetition of errors led to student uptake: self repair and peer correction.

 


Keywords


Corrective feedback, different types of feedback, uptake

Full Text:

PDF

References


Carroll, S., & Swain, M. (1993). Explicit and implicit negative feedback: an empirical study of the learning of linguistic generalizations. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 15, 357-386.

Chaudron, C. (1977). A descriptive model of discourse in the corrective treatment of learners’ errors. Language Learning, 27(1), 29-46.

DeKeyser, R. (1993). The effect of error correction on L2 grammar knowledge and oral proficiency. Modern Language Journal, 77, 501-514.

Doughty, C. (2001). Cognitive underpinning of focus on form. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 206–257). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Doughty, C. & Verela, E. (1998). Communicative focus on form: Focus on form in classroom second Language Acquisition .Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ellis, R. (1994). The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R. (1994). Uptake as language awareness. Language Awareness, 4, 147-160.

Ellis, R., Basturkmen, H., & Loewen, S. (2001a). Learner uptake in communicative ESL lessons. Language Learning, 51, 281-318.

Ellis, R., Basturkmen, H., & Loewen, S. (2001b). Preemptive focus on form in ESL classroom. TESOEL Quarterly, 34, 407-432.

Ellis, R., Loewen, S., & Erlam, R. (2006). Implicit and explicit corrective feedback and the acquisition of L2 grammar. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28(1), 339-369.

Han, Z. (2002). A study of the impact of recasts on tense consistency in L2 output. TESOL Quarterly, 36, 543–572.

Havranek, G. (2002). When is corrective feedback most likely to succeed? International Journal of Educational Research, 37, 225-270.

Havranek, G., & Cesenik, H. (2001).Factors affecting the success of corrective feedback.EUROSLA Yearbook, 1, 99-122.

Lightbown, P. (1998). The importance of timing in focus on form. In C. Doughty & J.Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 177-196). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lightbown, P.M., & Spada, N. (2003). How languages are learned. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Loewen, S. (2005). Incidental focus on form and second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 361-386.

Loewen, S., & J. Philp (2006). Recasts in the adult English L2 classroom: Characteristics, explicitness, and effectiveness. Modern Language Journal 90, 536-556.

Long, M. (1996). The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition. In W. Ritchie & T.K. Bhatia (Eds.), Handbook of language acquisition (pp.413-468). San Diego: Academic Press.

Long, M. H. (1998). Focus on form in task-based language teaching. University of Hawai’I Working Papers in ESL, 16, 35-49.

Long, M.H. (2006). Problems in SLA. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Long, M., Inagaki, S., & Ortega, L. (1998). The role of implicit negative feedback in SLA: Models and recasts in Japanese and Spanish. Modern Language Journal, 82, 357-371.

Lyster, R. (1998a). Negotiation of form, recasts, and explicit correction in relation to error types and learner repair in immersion classrooms. Language Learning, 48(2), 183-218

Lyster, R. (1998b). Recasts, repetition, and ambiguity in L2 classroom discourse. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 20(1), 51-81.

Lyster, R. (2004). Differential effects of prompts and recasts in form-focused instruction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26(3), 399-432.

Lyster, R., & Izquierdo, J. (2009). Prompts versus recasts in dyadic interaction. Language Learning, 59 (2), 453-498.

Lyster, R., & Mori, H. (2006). Interactional feedback and instructional counterbalance. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28(2), 269-300.

Lyster, R., & Ranta, L. (1997). Corrective feedback and learner uptake: Negotiation of form in communicative classrooms. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19(1), 37-66.

Mackey, A. (2000).Feedback, noticing and second language development: an empirical study of L2 classroom interaction. Paper presented at the British Association for Applied Linguistics, Cambridge, UK.

Mackey, A., Gass, S. M., & McDonough, K. (2000). How do learners perceive interactional feedback? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 22, 471-97.

Mackey, A., & Oliver, R. (2002). Interactional feedback and children`s L2 development. System, 30, 450.477.

Mackey, A., Oliver, R., & Leeman, J. (2003). Interactional input and the incorporation of feedback: an exploration of NS-NNS and NNSNNS adult and child dyads. Language Learning, 53, 35-66.

Mackey, A., & Philip, J. (1998). Conversational interaction and second language development: Recasts, responses, and red herrings. The Modern Language Journal, 82, 338-56.

Mackey, A.,& Silver, R. E. (2005).Interactional tasks and English L2 learning by immigrant children in Singapore. System, 33, 239-60.

McDonough, K., & Mackey, A. (2006). Responses to recasts: Repetitions, primed production and linguistic development. Language Learning, 56, 693–720.

Morris, F., & Tarone, E. (2003). Impact of classroom dynamics on the effectiveness of recasts in second language acquisition. Language Learning 53, 325–368.

Nabei, T., & Swain, M. (2002). Learner awareness of recasts in classroom interaction: A case study of an adult EFL student’s second language learning. Language Awareness, 11(1), 43-63.

Nassaji, H. (2009). Effects of recasts and elicitation in dyadic interaction and the role of feedback explicitness. Language Learning, 59, 411-452.

Nassaji, H., & Swain, M. (2000). A Vygotskian perspective on corrective feedback in L2: The effect of random versus negotiated help on the learning of English articles. Language Awareness, 9(1), 34-51.

Nicholas, H., Lightbown, P., & Spada, N. (2001). Recasts as feedback to language learners. Language Learning, 51, 719–758.

Oliver, R. (1995). Negative feedback in child NS-NNS conversation. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 17, 459–481.

Oliver, R. (2000). Age differences in negotiation and feedback in classroom and pairwork. Language Learning, 50, 119–151.

Panova, I., & Lyster, R. (2002). Patterns of corrective feedback and uptake in adult ESL classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 36(4), 573-595.

Philp, J. (2003). Constraints on ‘‘noticing the gap’’: Non-native speakers’ noticing of recasts in NS-NNS interaction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 25, 99-126.

Saxton, M. (2005). 'Recast' in a new light: Insights for practice from typical language studies. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 21, 23-38.

Sheen, Y. (2004). Corrective feedback and learner uptake in communicative classrooms across instructional settings. Language Teaching Research, 8, 263–300.

Sheen, Y. (2006). Exploring the relationship between characteristics of recasts and learner uptake. Language Teaching Research, 10, 361–392.

Smith, B. (2005). The relationship between negotiated Interactions, learner uptake, and lexical acquisition in task-based computer mediated communication. TESOL Quarterly, 39(1), 33-58.

Suzuki, M. (2004).Corrective feedback and learner uptake in adult ESL classrooms. Columbia University Working Papers in TESOL & Applied Linguistics, 4(2), 1-21.

Swain, M. (1995). Three functions of output in second language. In H.G. Widdowson, G.Cook & B. Seidlhofer (Eds.), Principles and practice in applied linguistics: Studies in honor of H. G. Widdowson (pp.125-144). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Takimoto, M. (2006).The effect of explicit feedback on the development of pragmatic proficiency. Language &Teaching Research, 10, 393-417.

Tsang, W.K. (2004). Feedback and uptake in teacher-student interaction: An analysis of 18 English Lesson in Hong Kong secondary classroom. Regional language Centre Journal, 35, 187-209.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.3n.1p.54

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2020 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.