The Comparative Effect of Top-down Processing and Bottom-up Processing through TBLT on Extrovert and Introvert EFL

Pezhman Nourzad Haradasht, Abdollah Baradaran

Abstract


This research seeks to examine the effect of two models of reading comprehension, namely top-down and bottom-up processing, on the reading comprehension of extrovert and introvert EFL learners’ reading comprehension. To do this, 120 learners out of a total number of 170 intermediate learners being educated at Iran Mehr English Language School were selected all taking a PET (Preliminary English Test) first for homogenization prior to the study. They also answered the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) which in turn categorized them into two subgroups within each reading models consisting of introverts and extroverts. All in all, there were four subgroups: 30 introverts and 30 extroverts undergoing the top-down processing treatment, and 30 introverts and 30 extroverts experiencing the bottom-up processing treatment. The aforementioned PET was administered as the post test of the study after each group was exposed to the treatment for 18 sessions in six weeks. After the instructions finished, the mean scores of all four groups on this post test were computed and a two-way ANOVA was run to test all the four hypotheses raise in this study. the results showed that while learners generally benefitted more from the bottom-up processing setting compared  to the top-down processing one, the extrovert group was better off receiving top-down instruction. Furthermore, introverts outperformed extroverts in bottom-up group; yet between the two personalities subgroups in the top-down setting no difference was seen. A predictable pattern of benefitting from teaching procedures could not be drawn for introverts as in both top-down and bottom-up settings, they benefitted more than extroverts.

 


Keywords


Reading comprehension, top-down processing, bottom-up processing, extrovert, introvert

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abbot, G. (2007). The teaching of English as an international language. Glasgow and London: Collins.

Ajideh, P. (2003). Schemata theory-based pre-reading tasks: A neglected essential in the ESL reading class. The Reading Matrix, 3(1).

Barnett, M. A. (2007). Remembering: A study in experimental and social psychology. London: Cambridge University.

Birch, B. M. (2007). English second language reading. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Boyle, G. J., Mathews, G., & Saklofske, D. H. (2008). The sage handbook of personality theory and assessment. London: Sage Publications Ltd.

Brown, H. D. (2000). Principles of language learning and teaching. San Francisco: Addison Wesley Longman.

Brown, H. D. (2001). Teaching by principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. San Francisco: Addison Wesley Longman.

Celce- Murcia, M. (2001). Teaching English as a second of foreign language. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.

Chamorro-Premuzik, T. (2007). Personality and individual differences. Oxford: Blackwell.

Dornyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner. Individual differences in second language acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language teaching. Great Clarendon Street: Oxford University Press.

Eskey, D. E. (2005). Interactive models for second language. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Farstrup, S. (2002). What research has to say about reading instruction. Newark: DE: International Reading Association.

Gebhard, J. G. (2009). Teaching English as a second or foreign language. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Gladwin, F. R., & Stepp-Greeny, J. (2008). An interactive, instructor supported reading approach vs. traditional reading instruction in Spanish. Foreign language annals, Vol. 41, No. 4.

Grabe, W. (2004). Research on teaching reading. Annual review of applied linguistics, 24, 44–69.

Hadley, A. O. (2003). Teaching language in context. Boston: Heinle & Heinle

Harmer, J. (20008). How to teach English. Pearson Education Ltd.

Hedge, T. (2008). Teaching and learning in the language classroom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mackey, A., Gass, S. (2005). Second language research: Methodology and design. NJ: LEA.

McNeil, J. D. (1992). Reading comprehension: New directions for classroom practice. Los Angeles, CA: University of California.

Naik, A. (2010). Introvert personality. Retrieved on July 10, 2010, from: WWW.buzzle.com/articles/introvert-personality.html.

Nunan, D. (2001). Second Language teaching and learning. University of Hong Kong

Nuttal, C. (1998). Teaching reading skills in a foreign language. Oxford: McMillan.

Richards, J. C., & Renandya, W. A. (2002). Methodology in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Richards, J. C. & Schmidt, R. W. (2002). Dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics. NY & London: Longman.

Roe, B. D., Smith, S. H., & Burns, P. C. (2005). Teaching reading in today’s elementary schools. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Rupp, A. A., Ferne, T., & Choi, H. (2006). How assessing reading comprehension with multiple choice questions shapes the construct: A cognitive processing perspective. Humboldt University of Berlin: University of Ottawa.

Singh, B. (2005). Psychological foundations of education. New Delhi: Mehra Offset Press.

Snow, C. E. (2002). Reading for understanding: toward a research and development program in reading comprehension. Pittsburg: Rand.

Ur, P. (1996). A course in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.2n.5p.229

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2012-2020 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD

International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the journal emails into your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.