Magnification in Dental Ergonomics – A Comprehensive Review

Harpreet Kaur, Vandana A. Pant, Vandana Gupta


Work related health hazard in dental professionals is increasing rapidly nowadays in all specialty of dentistry. Among various known disorders, musculoskeletal disorder is the most prevailing among dentists all over the world and more so in developing countries. Prolonged inappropriate postures can lead to cervical and spinal pain resulting in reduced efficiency of the clinician. Various guidelines and measurers have been introduced time to time to improve the working pattern but still it hasn’t been tackled appropriately. To overcome the problem of musculoskeletal disorder, fruitful application of ergonomics in the form of various magnifying loupes should be introduced aiming to reduce the illness and injury of muscles and increased satisfaction and better efficacy amongst dental clinicians.


Dental Professionals, Musculoskeletal Disorders, Magnifying Loupes, Ergonomics

Full Text:



Gupta A, Bhat M, Mohammed T, Bansal N, Gupta G. Ergonomics in dentistry. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent.2014;7(1):30‐34.

Alexopoulos EC, Stathi IC, Charizani F. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in dentists. BMC Musculoscelet Disord.2004;5:16.

Plessas A, Bernardes Delgado M. The role of ergonomic saddle seats and magnification loupes in the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders. A systematic review. Int J Dent Hyg. 2018 Nov;16(4):430–40.

Goldstep F. Designing the esthetic dental environment. Dent Clin North Am. 1998;42(4):643‐viii.

Diniz DG, Diniz JDPF. Current Considerations in Dental Ergonomics: Standards and Guidelines, Teaching and Prevention. J Ergonomics 2017;7:200.

Sachdeva A, Bhateja S, Arora G. Ergonomics in dentistry: A comprehensive review. J Dent Res Rev 2020;7:32-5.

Lietz J, Kozak A, Nienhaus A. Prevalence and occupational risk factors of musculoskeletal diseases and pain among dental professionals in Western countries: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2018;13:e0208628. Published 2018 Dec 18.

Sakzewski L, Naser-ud-Din S. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in dentists and orthodontists: A review of the literature. Work. 2014;48(1):37–45.

Mulimani P, Hoe VC, Hayes MJ, Idiculla JJ, Abas AB, Karanth L. Ergonomic interventions for preventing musculoskeletal disorders in dental care practitioners. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;10(10):CD011261. Published 2018 Oct 15.

Punnett L, Wegman DH. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders: the epidemiologic evidence and the debate. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2004;14(1):13‐23.

Keyserling WM. Workplace risk factors and occupational musculoskeletal disorders, Part 2: A review of biomechanical and psychophysical research on risk factors associated with upper extremity disorders. AIHAJ. 2000;61(2):231‐243.

Bernard B. Musculoskeletal Disorders and Workplace Factors; A critical Review of Epidemiologic Evidence for Work- Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Neck, Upper Extremity,and Low Back. In: NIOSH, editor. Cincinnati: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, 1997.

Burdorf A, Sorock G. Positive and negative evidence of risk factors for back disorders. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1997;23(4):243‐256.

Kerosuo E, Kerosuo H, Kanerva L. Self-reported health complaints among general dental practitioners, orthodontists, and office employees. Acta Odontol Scand. 2000;58(5):207‐212.

Hoogendoorn WE, Bongers PM, de Vet HC, Ariëns GA, van Mechelen W, Bouter LM. High physical work load and low job satisfaction increase the risk of sickness absence due to low back pain: results of a prospective cohort study. Occup Environ Med. 2002;59(5):323‐328.

Valachi B, Valachi K. Mechanisms leading to musculoskeletal disorders in dentistry. J Am Dent Assoc. 2003;134(10):1344‐1350.

Lietz J, Ulusoy N, Nienhaus A. Prevention of Musculoskeletal Diseases and Pain among Dental Professionals through Ergonomic Interventions: A Systematic Literature Review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17:3482. Published 2020 May 16.

Burton JF, Bridgman GF. Presbyopia and the dentist: the effect of age on clinical vision [published correction appears in Int Dent J 1991 Feb;41(1):54]. Int Dent J. 1990;40(5):303‐312.

Hayes MJ, Taylor JA, Smith DR. Predictors of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dental hygienists. Int J Dent Hyg. 2012;10(4):265‐269.

Ahearn DJ, Sanders MJ, Turcotte C. Ergonomic design for dental offices. Work. 2010;35(4):495‐503.

James T, Gilmour AS. Magnifying loupes in modern dental practice: an update. Dent Update. 2010;37(9):633‐636. doi:10.12968/denu.2010.37.9.633

Sunell S, Maschak L. Positioning for clinical dental hygiene care. Preventing back, neck and shoulder pain. Probe. 1996;30(6):216‐219.

Cortellini P, Tonetti MS. Microsurgical approach to periodontal regeneration. Initial evaluation in a case cohort. J Periodontol. 2001;72(4):559‐569.

Rubinstein RA, Kim S. Long-term follow-up of cases considered healed one year after apical microsurgery. J Endod. 2002;28(5):378‐383.

Burkhardt R, Niklaus P. Lang. Periodontal Plastic Microsurgery. In: Jan lindhe, Niklaus P. Lang. Clinical periodontology and Implant dentistry, ed 6 . Wiley Blackwell; 2019.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2022 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine