Biomarkers for early diagnosis and management of cardiovascular diseases

Ravi Adusumalli


In the last two decades, there has been a significant increase in interest in cardiovascular biomarkers for early diagnosis, primary disease control, and management. This has been fueled by the importation of advanced gene technology for the identification of novel biomarkers, as well as a better understanding of disease pathophysiology. This article provides a thorough examination of available biomarkers as well as their evaluation. A growing number of biomarkers are being used to assess the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to improve primary prevention. However, clinicians face a difficult task in evaluating and identifying appropriate biomarkers and when they should be used. Since the turn of the century, researchers have been examining the capabilities and limitations of novel biomarkers in the management of CVD. These studies show that much work remains to be done in order to identify novel biomarkers that are more precise and cost-effective for use in early heart disease prevention.


Cardiovascular Disease, Biomarkers, Heart Failure

Full Text:



Borén J, Chapman MJ, Krauss RM, et al. Low-density lipoproteins cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: pathophysiological, genetic, and therapeutic insights: a consensus statement from the European Atherosclerosis Society Consensus Panel. European Heart Journal. 2020;41(24):2313-2330.

Lewis SJ. Lipid-lowering therapy: who can benefit? Vascular health and risk management. 2011;7:525-534.

Petersen LK, Christensen K, Kragstrup J. Lipid-lowering treatment to the end? A review of observational studies and RCTs on cholesterol and mortality in 80+-year olds. Age and ageing. 2010;39(6):674-680.

Sproston NR, Ashworth JJ. Role of C-Reactive Protein at Sites of Inflammation and Infection. Frontiers in Immunology. 2018;9(754).

Ridker PM. C-reactive protein, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease: clinical update. Texas Heart Institute journal. 2005;32(3):384-386.

Censin JC, Peters SAE, Bovijn J, et al. Causal relationships between obesity and the leading causes of death in women and men. PLoS genetics. 2019;15(10):e1008405-e1008405.

Meijer A, Zuidersma M, de Jonge P. Depression as a non-causal variable risk marker in coronary heart disease. BMC Medicine. 2013;11(1):130.

Parsanathan R, Jain SK. Novel Invasive and Noninvasive Cardiac-Specific Biomarkers in Obesity and Cardiovascular Diseases. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. 2019;18(1):10-30.

Gorini S, Marzolla V, Mammi C, Armani A, Caprio M. Mineralocorticoid Receptor and Aldosterone-Related Biomarkers of End-Organ Damage in Cardiometabolic Disease. Biomolecules. 2018;8(3):96.

Gianazza E, Brioschi M, Fernandez AM, et al. Lipid Peroxidation in Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 2020.

Filardi T, Ghinassi B, Di Baldassarre A, et al. Cardiomyopathy Associated with Diabetes: The Central Role of the Cardiomyocyte. International journal of molecular sciences. 2019;20(13):3299.

Sanders-van Wijk S, van Empel V, Davarzani N, et al. Circulating biomarkers of distinct pathophysiological pathways in heart failure with preserved vs. reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. European Journal of Heart Failure. 2015;17(10):1006-1014.

Ahmad T, Fiuzat M, Felker GM, O'Connor C. Novel biomarkers in chronic heart failure. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2012;9(6):347-359.

Kim S-H, Weiß C, Hoffmann U, Borggrefe M, Akin I, Behnes M. Advantages and Limitations of Current Biomarker Research: From Experimental Research to Clinical Application. Current pharmaceutical biotechnology. 2017;18(6):445-455.

Dhingra R, Vasan RS. Biomarkers in cardiovascular disease: Statistical assessment and section on key novel heart failure biomarkers. Trends in cardiovascular medicine. 2017;27(2):123-133.

Davis KD, Aghaeepour N, Ahn AH, et al. Discovery and validation of biomarkers to aid the development of safe and effective pain therapeutics: challenges and opportunities. Nature Reviews Neurology. 2020;16(7):381-400.

Wang J, Tan G-J, Han L-N, Bai Y-Y, He M, Liu H-B. Novel biomarkers for cardiovascular risk prediction. Journal of geriatric cardiology : JGC. 2017;14(2):135-150.

Dhama K, Latheef SK, Dadar M, et al. Biomarkers in Stress Related Diseases/Disorders: Diagnostic, Prognostic, and Therapeutic Values. Frontiers in molecular biosciences. 2019;6:91-91.

Nadar SK, Shaikh MM. Biomarkers in Routine Heart Failure Clinical Care. Cardiac failure review. 2019;5(1):50-56.

Richards AM. Future biomarkers in cardiology: my favourites. European Heart Journal Supplements. 2018;20(suppl_G):G37-G44.

Morrow DA, Sabatine, M.S. and de Lemos, J.A. Moving toward Personalized Medicine. In: Biomarkers in Heart Disease.2008:205-227.

Morrow D, Lemos J. Benchmarks for the Assessment of Novel Cardiovascular Biomarkers. Circulation. 2007;115:949-952.

Sturgeon C, Hill R, Hortin GL, Thompson D. Taking a new biomarker into routine use--a perspective from the routine clinical biochemistry laboratory. Proteomics Clinical applications. 2010;4(12):892-903.

Füzéry AK, Levin J, Chan MM, Chan DW. Translation of proteomic biomarkers into FDA approved cancer diagnostics: issues and challenges. Clinical proteomics. 2013;10(1):13-13.

Rifai N, Gillette MA, Carr SA. Protein biomarker discovery and validation: the long and uncertain path to clinical utility. Nature Biotechnology. 2006;24(8):971-983.

Wang TJ. Assessing the role of circulating, genetic, and imaging biomarkers in cardiovascular risk prediction. Circulation. 2011;123(5):551-565.

Seyhan AA, Carini C. Are innovation and new technologies in precision medicine paving a new era in patients centric care? Journal of Translational Medicine. 2019;17(1):114.

Vasan Ramachandran S. Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease. Circulation. 2006;113(19):2335-2362.

King K, Grazette LP, Paltoo DN, et al. Point-of-Care Technologies for Precision Cardiovascular Care and Clinical Research: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group. JACC Basic to translational science. 2016;1(1-2):73-86.

Morrow David A, de Lemos James A. Benchmarks for the Assessment of Novel Cardiovascular Biomarkers. Circulation. 2007;115(8):949-952.

Ho D, Quake SR, McCabe ERB, et al. Enabling Technologies for Personalized and Precision Medicine. Trends in Biotechnology. 2020;38(5):497-518.

Gilstrap LG, Wang TJ. Biomarkers and Cardiovascular Risk Assessment for Primary Prevention: An Update. Clinical Chemistry. 2012;58(1):72-82.

Gilstrap LG, Wang TJ. Biomarkers and cardiovascular risk assessment for primary prevention: an update. Clin Chem. 2012;58(1):72-82.

Vasan R. Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease: Molecular Basis and Practical Considerations. Circulation. 2006;113:2335-2362.

Morrow DA, de Lemos JA. Benchmarks for the assessment of novel cardiovascular biomarkers. Circulation. 2007;115(8):949-952.

Kohli P. The Top 5 Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention. Practical Cardiology. 2017.

Horgan D, Ciliberto G, Conte P, et al. Bringing Greater Accuracy to Europe’s Healthcare Systems: The Unexploited Potential of Biomarker Testing in Oncology. Biomedicine Hub. 2020;5(3):1-42.

Hampel H, O'Bryant SE, Molinuevo JL, et al. Blood-based biomarkers for Alzheimer disease: mapping the road to the clinic. Nature reviews Neurology. 2018;14(11):639-652.

Scirica BM. Acute Coronary Syndrome: Emerging Tools for Diagnosis and Risk Assessment. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2010;55(14):1403-1415.

Krzyszczyk P, Acevedo A, Davidoff EJ, et al. The growing role of precision and personalized medicine for cancer treatment. Technology. 2018;6(3-4):79-100.

Gavan SP, Thompson AJ, Payne K. The economic case for precision medicine. Expert review of precision medicine and drug development. 2018;3(1):1-9.

Litman T. Personalized medicine—concepts, technologies, and applications in inflammatory skin diseases. APMIS. 2019;127(5):386-424.

Fineout-Overholt E, Mazurek Melnyk B. Evaluation of studies of prognosis. Evidence Based Nursing. 2004;7(1):4.

Nishiga M, Wang DW, Han Y, Lewis DB, Wu JC. COVID-19 and cardiovascular disease: from basic mechanisms to clinical perspectives. Nature Reviews Cardiology. 2020;17(9):543-558.

Zamboni P. COVID-19 as a Vascular Disease: Lesson Learned from Imaging and Blood Biomarkers. Diagnostics. 2020;10(7).

Varga Z, Flammer AJ, Steiger P, et al. Endothelial cell infection and endotheliitis in COVID-19. The Lancet. 2020;395(10234):1417-1418.

Wichmann D, Sperhake J-P, Lütgehetmann M, et al. Autopsy Findings and Venous Thromboembolism in Patients With COVID-19. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2020;173(4):268-277.

Guo T, Fan Y, Chen M, et al. Cardiovascular Implications of Fatal Outcomes of Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). JAMA Cardiology. 2020;5(7):811-818.

Wu Z, McGoogan JM. Characteristics of and Important Lessons From the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in China: Summary of a Report of 72 314 Cases From the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. JAMA. 2020;323(13):1239-1242.

Wang TJ. Assessing the role of circulating, genetic, and imaging biomarkers in cardiovascular risk prediction. Circulation. 2011;123(5):551-565.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

2013-2022 (CC-BY) Australian International Academic Centre PTY.LTD.

Advances in Bioscience and Clinical Medicine